October 16, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

October 16, 1804


16th of October Tuesday 1804    Some rain this morning    2 Squars verry anxious to accompany us    we Set [out] with our Chief on Board by name Ar ke tar nar shar (or Chief of the Town) [1]    a little above our Camp on the L. S.    passed an old Shyenne Village, [2] which appears to have been Serounded with a wall of earth; this is the retreat & first Stand of this nation after being reduced by the Sioux and drove from their Countrey on the heads of red River of L Winipic [3] where they Cultivated the lands—passed a Creek I call So-harch or Girl Creek L. S. [4]    2 miles higher passed Woman Crreek or Char-part [5]    passed an Island Situated in a bend to the S. S.    at the lower point of this Island a Creek comes in Called Kee-tooch Sar-kar-nar- or the place of Beaver [6]    above the Island a Small River on the Same S. Side Called War-re-Con nee Elk shed their horns, [7] this river is 35 yards wide & heads near the River au Jacque, Carp Island [8]    wind hard a head from the N W.    Saw great numbers of goats or Antelope on Shore, Capt Lewis one man & the Ricara Chief walked on Shore, in the evening I discovered a number of Indians on each Side and goats in the river or Swiming & on Sand bars, when I came near Saw the boys in the water Swiming amongst the goats & Killing them with Sticks, and then hauling them to the Shore    those on Shore Kept them in the water, I saw 58 Killed in this way and on the Shore, the hunter with Cap Lewis Shot 3 goats    I came too and Camped above the Ricara Camp on the L. S. [9]    Several Indians visited us duereing the night Some with meat, Sang and were merry all night.—

Cours & Distance 16
North 4 m to a point on the S. S.    passed 2 Creeks L. S.
N. 10° E 6 m. to the upper pt. of Some timber on the L. S. opsd. a
Creek haveing passed an Isld. on the S. S    a Creek at its
lower point
N.     ½ a m on the L. Side
N. 30° W 1 m on the L. point
N 38° W. 3 m. to a point on the S. S.—

Some rain this morning,    2 young Squars verry anxious to accompany us, we Set out with our Chief on board by name Ar ke tar na Shar or Chief of the Town, a little above our Camp on the L. S. passed a Circular work, where the, Shār há (or Chien , or Dog Indians[)] formerly lived, a Short distance abov passed a Creek which we Call Chien [NB: Chayenne or Sharha Mr Hayley says not Chien] [10] Creek, above is a willow Island Situated near (1) the L. Side a large Sand bar above & on both Sides    (2) passed a Creek above the Island on the L. S. call So-harch (or Girls) Creek, at 2 miles higher up (3) passed a Creek on L. S. call Char part (or womins) Creek    passed (5) an Island Situated in a bend to the S. S.    this Isd. is about 1 ½ miles long, Covered with timber Such as Cotton wood, opsd. the lower point a creek coms in on [11] the S. S. called by the Indians Kee tooch Sar kar nar (or place [NB: place] of Beavr[)]    above the Island a 〈large Creek〉 Small river about 35 yards wide coms in Called War re con ne or (Elk Shed their horns). The Island is Called Carp Island by Ivens. [12]    wind hard from the N. W. Saw great numbers of Goats on the Shore S. S.    proceeded on    Capt. Lewis & the Indian Chief walked on Shore, Soon after I discovered Great numbers of Goats in the river, and Indians on the Shore on each Side, as I approached or got nearer I discovered boys in the water Killing the Goats with Sticks and halling them to Shore, Those on the banks Shot them with arrows and as they approachd. the Shore would turn them back    of this Gangue of Goats I counted 58 of which they had killed & on the Shore, one of our hunters out with Cap Lewis killed three Goats, we passed the Camp on the S. S. and proceeded ½ mile and Camped on the L. S.    many Indians came to the boat to See, Some Came across late at night, as they approach they hollowed and Sung, after Staying a Short time 2 went for Some meat, and returned in a Short time with fresh & Dried Buffalow, also goat, those Indians Strayed all night, They Sung and was verry merry the greater part of the night 〈wind hard from N W.〉

16th Octr

Course Distance & reffurences
North   4 miles to a pt. on the S. S.    Passed a willow Island L. S. (1)
a Creek (2) above the Isd. & one at 2 miles furthr (3)
N. 10° E.   6 miles to the upper point of Some Timber on the L. S.
opsd. the mouth of a Creek on the S. S. (4).    passed a
Isld. on the S. S. (5).    opsd. the Lower pt. of which comes
in a Creek (5).
North      ½ mile on the L. Side
N. 30° W.   1 me. on the L. point High Ld.
N. 38° W.   3 miles to a point on the S. S.

This day took a small bird [EC: Phalaenoptilus nuttalli] alive of the order of the [blank] or goat suckers.    it appeared to be passing into the dormant state.    on the morning of the 18th the murcury was at 30 a[bove] 0. the bird could scarcely move.—    I run my penknife into it's body under the wing and completely distroyed it's lungs and heart—    yet it lived upwards of two hours    this fanominon I could not account for unless it proceeded from the want of circulation of the blo[o]d.—    the recarees call this bird to'-na    it's note is at-tah-to'-nah'; at-tah'to'-nah'; to-nah,    a nocturnal bird, sings only in the night as does the whipperwill.—    it's weight—1 oz 17 Grains Troy


Tuesday 16th Oct. 1804.    a clear & pleasant morning.    we Set off at day light.    passed an old Shian fort on the S. S. where the Chian nation of Indians lived Some years ago.    proceeded on    passed a creek on S. S. called [blank] [14]    passed a Bottom covered with Timbers on N. S.    at half past 7 oC. we halted took breakfast on a willow Island S. S.    passd. the Mouth of a River on S. S. called [blank] [15]    high naked hills back from the River.    we proceeded on under a gentle breeze from the S. W.    towards evening Capt. Lewis & one hunter went out hunting on S. S. of the River.    directly after we passed a hunting Camp of the R. Ree nation on N. S.    abo. the camp we Saw a Great nomber of Indians on each side of the River.    they were Shooting a flock of Goats which they had drove into the River. They Shot upwards of 40 of them & Got them to Shore.    they had Shot them all with their Bows & arrows.    we Saw Some of the Goats floating down with the arrows Sticking up in them.    we Saw a large flock of Goats back on the hills, which we Suppose they had Scared from the River.    our hunter killed 3 Goats out of the same flock.    the Indians killed theirs    when the Indians killed the Goats in the River they Swam in & drew them out to each Shore    we Saw them all lying along the Shore & Some Indians on horse back to keep them or the flock in the River. So that they might kill as many as they pleased.    we Camped on the S. S. where Capt. Lewis & our hunter joined us.


Tuesday 16th.    We early renewed our voyage; and had a clear morning, passed a creek on the south side. The timber is more plenty than it has been for a considerable distance down the river. The sand bars, gave us a great deal of trouble, and much retarded our progress. In the evening a short time before we encamped, we met with another hunting party of the Rickarees. They had a flock of goats, or antelopes, in the river, and killed upwards of forty of them. Captain Lewis, and one of our hunters went out and killed three of the same flock. We encamped on the south side. This day we saw more than an hundred goats.


Tuesday October 16th [16]    We set out early this morning, and passed a Creek lying on the South side of the River, we continued on 'till the afternoon, when we saw a hunting party of the Rick aRee Indians, who were shooting at a flock of Goats, which were in the River; Some of our Men from One of the boats shot 3 of them which they got on board, We proceeded on, and in the Evening we Encamped on the South side of the River

1. See above, October 9, 1804. (back)
2. In Sioux County, North Dakota, between present Four Mile and Long Soldier or Porcupine creeks. The site, probably now inundated by Oahe Reservoir, represents a period when the Cheyennes were relatively sedentary, before they had adopted a completely nomadic way of life in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Atlas map 26; Hyde (IHP), 47–48 and n. 15; Grinnell, 1:23–24; Berthrong, 9–13; MRC map 47. Other authorities disagree with Grinnell that it is a Cheyenne site. Wood (BS), 63–64. (back)
3. Osgood interprets these words as "Levenispice," and suggests that it may mean that the Cheyennes were deprived of "living space." However, Clark spells Lake Winnipeg "Winipic" on his 1805 map (Atlas maps 32a, 32b, and 32c), and since the Red River of the North flows into that lake, it is likely that he is here identifying the river more fully. The exact spelling is not clear. Osgood (FN), 161 and n. 3. (back)
4. Perhaps later Porcupine or Battle Creek, in Sioux County, nameless on Atlas map 27. Clark is apparently applying Arikara names learned from the chief accompanying them to this and other streams passed. It may be rendered as suúnatš , "girl" in Arikara. MRC map 47; MRY map 123. (back)
5. The second nameless stream on the larboard side on Atlas map 27, perhaps later Battle Creek, in Sioux County. It is sápat, "woman" in Arikara. MRC map 47; MRY map 123. (back)
6. Presently Little Beaver Creek, in Emmons County, North Dakota. It is čítUx sAhaánu', "beaver creek" in Arikara. Atlas map 27; MRC map 47. (back)
7. The Arikara words wah for "elk" and arika for "horn" may coincide with Clark's rendition. Now Beaver Creek, in Emmons County. Atlas map 27; MRC map 47. (back)
8. As Clark notes in Codex C, he derived the name of the island from Evans's map 5 (Atlas map 11). It seems to have joined the starboard shore by the late nineteenth century. Atlas map 27; MRC map 47. (back)
9. In Sioux County, roughly two miles above the mouth of Beaver Creek. Atlas map 27; MRC map 48. (back)
10. "Mr. Hayley" is probably Hugh Heney, whom the party met at Fort Mandan (see below, December 16, 1804). Apparently it was he who informed the captains that "Cheyenne" was not derived from the French "chien," for dog. (back)
11. At this point the text of the Codex C entry is interrupted by the courses and distances; here the two parts are brought together for ease of reading. (back)
12. Shown on Atlas map 11, see n. 8 above. (back)
13. Lewis's natural history notes from Codex Q. The bird is the common poorwill, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii [AOU, 418], as noted interlineally by Coues. Burroughs notes that it was not until the 1940s that zoologists discovered the bird's tendency to hiberate. Burroughs , 236, 327 n. 7. The poorwill is a close relative of the whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus [AOU, 417]) that Lewis uses for comparison. (back)
15. Ordway may mean on the north (actually east) side, thus Clark's Warreconne River, today's Beaver Creek, Emmons County. (back)
16. As a result of a gap in the original, the single entries for the period October 16–31 are from the fair copy. (back)