June 10, 1805
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June 10, 1805


The day being fair and fine we dryed all our baggage and merchandize. Shields renewed the main Spring of my air gun    we have been much indebted to the ingenuity of this man on many occasions; without having served any regular apprenticeship to any trade, he makes his own tools principally and works extreemly well in either wood or metal, and in this way has been extreenely servicable to us, as well as being a good hunter and an excellent waterman.    in order to guard against accedents we thout it well to conceal some ammunicion here and accordingly buryed a tin cannester of 4 lbs. of powder and an adequate quantity of lead near our tent; a cannester of 6 lbs. lead and an ax in a thicket up the S. Fork three hundred yards distant from the point.    we concluded that we still could spare more amunition for this deposit    Capt. Clark was therefore to make a further deposit in the morning, in addition to one Keg of 20 lbs. and an adequate proportion of lead which had been laid by to be buryed in the large Cash.    we now scelected the articles to be deposited in this cash which consisted of 2 best falling axes, one auger, a set of plains, some files, blacksmiths bellowses and hammers Stake tongs &c.    1 Keg of flour, 2 Kegs of parched meal, 2 Kegs of Pork, 1 Keg of salt, some chissels, a cooper's Howel, some tin cups, 2 Musquets, 3 brown bear skins, beaver skins, horns of the bighorned anamal, a part of the men's robes clothing and all their superfluous baggage of every discription, and beaver traps.—    we drew up the red perogue into the middle of a small Island at the entrance of Maria's river, and secured and made her fast to the trees to prevent the high floods from carrying her off    put my brand on several trees standing near her, [1] and covered her with brush to shelter her from the effects of the sun. At 3 P. M. we had a hard wind from the S. W. which continued about an hour attended with thunder and rain.    as soon as the shower had passed over we drew out our canoes, corked, repared and loaded them. I still feel myself somewhat unwell with the disentary, but determined to set out in the morning up the South fork or Missouri leaving Capt. Clark to compleat the deposit and follow me by water with the party; accordingly gave orders to Drewyer, Joseph Fields, Gibson and Goodrich to hold themselves in readiness to accompany me in the morning. Sâh-câh-gâh, we â, our Indian woman is very sick this evening; Capt. C. blead her.    the night was cloudy with some rain.—

Observed meridian Altitude of ☉'s L. L with Octant by the Back observation 54° 32'

Latitude deduced from this observation 47° 22' 52.8"

Mean Latitude of the Entrance of Maria's river as deduced from three observations of ☉ Altd. 47° 25' 17.2" North.

I saw a small bird today which I do not recollect ever having seen before. [2]    it is about the size of the blue thrush or catbird, and it's contour not unlike that bird.    the beak is convex, moderately curved, black, smoth, and large in proportion to its' size.    the legs were black, it had four toes of the same colour on eah foot, and the nails appeared long and somewhat in form like the tallons of the haulk, the eye black and proportionably large.    a bluish brown colour occupyed the head, neck, and back, the belly was white; the tail was reather long in proportion and appeared to be composed of feathers of equal length of which a part of those in the center were white the others black.    the wings were long and were also varigated with white and black.    on each side of the head from the beak back to the neck a small black stripe extended imbrasing the eye.    it appeared to be very busy in catching insects which I presume is it's usual food; I found the nest of this little bird, the female which differed but little in size or plumage from the male was seting on four eggs of a pale blue colour with small black freckles or dots.—    the bee martin or Kingbird [3] is common to this country tho' there are no bees in this country, nor have we met with a honey bee [4] since we passed the entrance of the 〈Osage〉 [NB: Kanzas ] river.—


a fine day    dry all our articles arrange our baggage burry Some Powder & lead in the point, Some Lead a canister of Powder & an ax in a thicket in the point at Some distance, buried on this day and in the large cache or whole we buried on the up land near the S. fork 1 mile up S. S. [5]    we drew up our large Perogue into the middle of a Small Island in the North fork and covered her with bushes after makeing her fast to the trees, branded several trees to prevent the Indians injureing her, at 3 oClock we had hard wind from the S. W.    thunder and rain for about an hour after which we repaired & Corked the Canoes & loadded them—    Sah cah gah, we â our Indian woman verry Sick    I blead her, we deturmined to assend the South fork, and one of us, Capt. Lewis or My self to go by land as far as the Snow mountains S. 20° W. and examine the river & Countrey Course & to be Certain of our assending the proper river, Capt Lewis inclines to go by land on this expedition, according Selects 4 men George Drewyer, Gibson, Jo. Fields & S. Gutrich to accompany him & deturmine to Set out in the morning—    The after noon or night Cloudy Some rain, river riseing a little.


Monday 10th June 1805.    a beautiful pleasant morning. Some men employed makeing a towing line for the white perogue.    we burryed a canister of powder & Some led &.C. in the point. we halled out our largest perogue in the middle of an Island in the North fork opposite the point, and made hir fast between Some trees, & branded Several trees to prevent the Savages from disturbing hir    the blacksmiths [6] fixed up their bellowes & repaired the air gun & Several other fire arms. The Canoe Calked, the Baggage aranged & loaded the Crafts, about 4 oClock P. M. we had a light Shower of rain which lasted about an hour.    high wind.    the evening pleasant    Capt. Lewis concludes to go on with a fiew men to the South Mountain & See the course of the River &.C. Sah cah gah our Indian woman verry Sick & was bled.—


Monday 10th.    We hauled our large periogue on an island in the mouth of Maria's river, and covered it over with brush. We then began to examine and assort our effects to see what would be least wanted and most proper to leave; but about two it began to rain and blow so hard, we were obliged to desist. The rain continued only an hour, and in the evening we loaded the rest of the craft, and left the remainder of our stores and baggage to be buried, consisting of corn, pork, flour, some powder and lead, and other articles amounting to about one thousand pounds weight. [7]


Monday 10th June 1805.    a beautiful pleasant morning.    the party employed    Some makeing a towing line for the white perogue, others employed digging another hole So that we might bury in different places what we left So that if the Savages Should find one perhaps they would not find the other & we would have Some left Still.    about 10 oClock we halled up the red perogue on an Island, on the North Side of the N. fork which was covered with Small cotton timber.    we halled it among the thicke of trees & ran the bow between two & pined hir on each Side & covered hir over with bushes, & Secured hir as well as possable, branded [8] Several trees with the U S. mark & Capt. M. Lewis & Latd. &c.    The black Smiths fixed up the bellowses & made a main Spring to Capt. [Lewis's] air Gun, as the one belonging to it got broke.    the articles which we Intend to bury all got ready.    the loading which came out of the red perogue divided out to the White perogue & Canoes & loaded them.    put a Canister of powder & led accordingly in the ground near the point, between the two Rivers at our Camp.    about 4 oClock P. M. we had a light Shower of rain.    the evening pleasant.

Monday June 10th    A Beautiful pleasant morning, our men are all employed in making of ropes, and digging another hole, in Order to deposit what we leave behind in different places, so that in case the Savages should find one of our places of deposit, the other might escape being found.—    so that we might have something left, if we should ever return.—    About 10 o'Clock A. M. we hawled up one of our pettyaugers on an Island, lying on the North side of the North fork of the River (called Maria's River,) which was cover'd with small Cotton wood Timber.—    We placed the pettyauger among the thickest of the trees, and ran her bow between two of them, pinned her on each side, and covered her over with bushes.    The officers branded several of the trees with the mark of the United States, Captain Lewis's name, the Latitude of the place &ca—    The Blacksmiths fixed their Bellows, to repair the Arms, the rest of the party was busy in burying the Goods, and securing them from Spoiling, which we intend to leave behind;—    the loading which came out of the pettyauger which we had hid on the Island, was put on board another Pettyauger & Canoe, We also buried a Cannister of powder & some lead, near a point, between the two Rivers, the place that we are encamped on, The powder was in leaden Cannisters prepared for that purpose.—    About 4 o'Clock P. M. we had a light shower of Rain, & in the Evening it cleared up, & we had pleasant Weather.—

1. Lewis's branding iron bore the legend "U. S. Capt. M. Lewis." Now in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society, it is one of the few authenticated articles associated with the expedition known to have survived. Files of the society are inexact and sources disagree on the item's provenance. It was found in 1892, 1893, or 1894, by Lineaus Winans of Hood River, Oregon, near present The Dalles, Oregon, on or below one of the Memaloose Islands before Columbia River dams inundated the area. See October 5 and 29, 1805. Wheeler, 2:118; Appleman (LC), 179–80, 373 n. 120; Oregon Historical Society files on the branding iron (courtesy of Robert E. Lange, Portland). (back)
2. Cited as the first description of the white-rumped shrike, Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides, the western form of the loggerhead shrike; it is no longer considered a separate subspecies of the loggerhead, L. ludovicianus [AOU, 622]. Cutright (LCPN), 157. The birds used for comparison are the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis [AOU, 766], and the gray catbird, Dumetella carolinensis [AOU, 704]. Holmgren, 29, 33. (back)
3. Either the eastern kingbird or the western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis [AOU, 447]. The latter would be more common in Montana. Cf. Burroughs, 244, and Holmgren, 28. See also weather remarks for May 25, 1805. (back)
4. The honey bee is Apis mellifera. Werner et al., 47. Its western limit in 1804 would probably be closer to the Osage River than to the Kansas as Biddle has emended. It was probably Biddle who drew a red vertical line through this passage about the birds and the honey bee. (back)
5. From "and in the large …" to here the passage appears to be crossed out. (back)
6. Shields, according to Lewis. (back)
7. Lewis gives a more detailed list of the cached items in his entry of this date. (back)
8. Lewis's branding iron; see his entry for this day. Only Whitehouse is this explicit about the instrument. (back)