July 29, 1805
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July 29, 1805

 

This morning some of the hunters turned out and returned in a few hours with four fat bucks, the venison is now very fine    we have killed no mule deer since we lay here, they are all of the longtailed red deer which appear qu[i]te as large as those of the United States. [1]    the hunters brought in a living young sandhill crain; [2] it has nearly obtained it's growth but cannot fly; they had pursued it and caught it in the meadows.    it's colour is precisely that of the red deer.    we see a number of the old or full grown crains of this species feeding in these meadows.    this young animal is very ferce and strikes a severe blow with his beak; after amusing myself with it I had it set at liberty and it moved off apparently much pleased with being releived from his captivity.    the men have been busily engaged all day in dising [dressing?] skins and making them into various garments all are leather dressers and taylors.    we see a great abundance of fish in the stream some of which we take to be trout [3] but they will not bite at any bate we can offer them.    the King fisher [4] is common on the river since we have left the falls of the Missouri.    we have not seen the summer duck [5] since we left that place, nor do I beleive that it is an inhabitant of the Rocky mountains.    the Duckanmallard [6] were first seen with their young on the 20th inst. and I forgot to note it; they are now abundant with their young but do not breed in the missouri below the mountains.    the grasshopers and crickets [7] are abundant in the plains as are also the small birds frequently mentioned.    there is also in these plains a large ant [8] with a redish brown body and legs, and a black head and abdomen; they construct little perimids of small gravel in a conic shape, about 10 or 12 inches high without a mixture of sticks and with but little earth. Capt. Clark is much better today, is perfectly clear of fever but still very languid and complains of a general soarness in all his limbs. I prevailed on him to take the barks [9] which he has done and eate tolerably freely of our good venison.

Today I continued my observations. ☉'s magnetic Azimt.

Time by
Chronometer
Azimuth by
Circumferentor
Altitude of ☉ L. L.
with sextant
h    m    s     
A. M.    8    48      9 N. 85° E 73°    —'    —"
8    53    57 N. 86° E 74     58    15
Observed Equal Altitudes of the Sun with Sextant.
  h m  s     h m  s    
A. M. 8 57   5.5       P. M. 4 5 50 } Altitude by Sextant
at the time of Observts.
77° 4' 45"
  " 58 41     " 7 24
  9 14     " 8 29

Observed Meridian Altitude of the ☉'s L. L. with Octant by the back observation 59° 7' —

Latitude deduced from this observation N. 45° 23' 23.1"

Mean Latitude from 2 Merds. Altds. of ☉'s L. L. N. 45° 24' 8.5"

Observed time and Distance of ☉'s and ☽'s nearest Limbs wit Sextant. ☉ West.

  Time   Distance
  h    m     s    
P.M. 4    14    42   49   43'    30"
  "    17    24     "    44    —
  "    19    34     "    44    45
  "    21    12     "    45    —
  "    22      9     "    45    54
  "    23    12     "    46    30
  "    24    14     "    46    45
  "    25    18     "    47    —
  "    26    26     "    47    15
  "    27    24     "    47    30
  Time   Distance
  h    m     s    
P.M. 4    45    25   49°    54'    —"
  "    46    37     "      54    45
  "    47    40     "      55    15
  "    48    52     "      55    45
  "    49    47     "      56    15
  "    50    44     "      56    45
  "    51    36     "      57    15
  "    52    36     "      57    45
  "    53    37     "      58    —
  "    54    36     "      58    15

Observed Magnetic Azimuth of the Sun.

Time by
Chronometer
Azimuth by
Circumfert
Altitude of ☉'s L. L.
by Sextant
h    m     s     
P.M.    5    7    47 S. 72° W. 55°    44'    30"
5    13      4 S. 73  W. 53     52     45

Observed Time and Distance of ☽'s Western limb from α Antares, with Sextant ★ East.

  Time   Distance
  h    m      s    
P.M. 8    42    16   68°   56'    —"
   "    50    55    "      52    30
   "    54    44    "      49    45
   "    55    56    "      49    —
   "    58    53    "      49    15
  Time   Distance
  h    m     s    
P.M. 9    1    12   68°   46'    —"
   "    3      1    "      45    30
   "    4    47    "      45    —
   "    6    27    "      44      —
   "    8    31    "      13    45

Observed the Azimuth of the Pole Star.

Time by Chronometer       Azimuth by Circumferenter
h    m    
P.M.   9    27    —   N. 13° W.
 

A fair morning wind from the North    I feel my Self something better to day, made some Celestial observations took two Merdn. altitudes which gave for Latd. 45° 22' 34" N men all dressing Skins &c.

 

July 29th Monday 1805.    a clear pleasant morning. Several men went out eairly a hunting    we conclude to lay at this Camp all day &C. Capt. Clark a little better.    the day warm.    the wind from the East. The Latitude at this place is 45° 22m 34s 5/10ths North.    the width of the three Rivers at the forks    we alow the North fork to be about 60 yds. wide the middle fork about the Same the South forks not So wide nor large.    all appear rapid but not verry deep.    towards evening the hunters returned    had killed 2 or 3 fat bucks deer, and caught a curious redish couloured long leged crain which they brought in a live, and it ran about the Camp Some time &C.

 

Monday 29th July 1805.    a clear pleasant morning.    Several hunters went out eairly to hunt.    we conclude to lay at this Camp to day.    Capt. Clark Some better.    the day verry warm the wind from the East.    the Latitude of this place is 45° 22m 34s 5/10th North.    the width of the Rivers at the forks we alow the North fork to about 60 yards wide, the west fork about the Same, the South fork about 40 yards wide.    towards evening the hunters came in    had killed 2 fat buck deer, and brought in a curious long leged redish couloured crain.

Monday July 29th    This morning we had very pleasant clear weather, Several of our hunters went out early to hunt, Our officers concluded to lay here this day, Captain Clark had got much better.—    The day proved since 9 o'Clock A. M very warm, the wind blowing from the East.—    Captain Lewis took the Suns altitude, and found the Latitude of this place to be in 45° 2M 34S North—    We measured also the width of the 3 Rivers at the 〈forks〉 confluence of them.    We found the North & West forks of the same width of Water 90 Yards wide which is Jefferson & Maddison Rivers and the South fork only 70 Yards wide which they named Galatin River, [11] the North fork having the most rapid Current, all those Rivers having fine Clear water in them.—    towards evening our Hunters returned, and brought in to our Camp 2 large Deer, which were very fat, also a curious long legged reddish Coloured Crane.—

1. The "longtailed red deer" are western white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis, which are compared to the common, or eastern white-tailed, deer, O. virginianus. The mule deer is O. hemionus. Burroughs, 124–33; Jones et al., 320–27. (back)
2. Sandhill crane, Grus canadensis [AOU, 206]. Perhaps it was Biddle who drew a red vertical line through part of this passage, from "we see" to "his beak." (back)
3. If a trout, it is probably Salmo clarkii, cutthroat trout, but the fish may be some kind of mountain sucker, Catostomus sp. Lee et al., 105. (back)
4. Belted kingfisher, Ceryle alcyon [AOU, 390]. There is a red vertical line though the remainder of this entry, perhaps drawn by Biddle. (back)
5. Wood duck, Aix sponsa [AOU, 144]. Lewis was probably mistaken about the bird's range. Burroughs, 191–92. (back)
6. Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos [AOU, 132]. Lewis was incorrect about the breeding range of the bird. Ibid., 188–89, 324 n. 3. (back)
7. The grasshoppers and crickets represent too many varieties to be identified with any certainty. (back)
8. Probably the western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Borror, Delong, & Triplehorn, 674–75. (back)
9. Peruvian bark, or cinchona, was a general remedy for fevers. Chuinard (OOMD), 65, 156–57 n. 18. (back)
10. A small symbol after the date appears to represent the sun. (back)
11. The Jefferson was named, of course, in honor of the president, the Madison for James Madison, then secretary of state and later president, and the Gallatin for Albert Gallatin, the secretary of the treasury. (back)