November 3, 1805
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November 3, 1805


The fog So thick this morning we did not think it prudent to Set out untill 〈it Cleared away at〉 10 oClock we Set out and proceeded on verry well, [1] accompanied by our Indian friends—    This morning Labich killed 3 Geese flying Collins killed a Buck—    The water rose 〈2〉 Inches last night the effects of tide. The Countrey has a handsom appearance in advance no mountains extensive bottoms—    the water Shallow for a great distance from Shore—.    The fog continued thick untill 12 oClock, we Coasted, and halted at the mouth of a large river on the Lard Side, [2] This river throws out emence quanty of 〈quick〉 Sand and is verry Shallow, th narrowest part 200 yards wide bold Current, much resembling the river Plat, Several Islands about 1 mile up and has a Sandbar of 3 miles in extend imedately in its mouth, discharging it waters by 2 mouths, and Crowding its Corse Sands So as to throw the Columbia waters on its Nothern banks, [3] & confdg it to ½ ms. in width Passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side above, a large Creek [4] opposit qk Sand River on the Stard. Side, extensive bottoms and low hilley Countrey on each Side (good wintering Place) a high peaked mountain Suppose to be Mt. Hood is on the Lard Side S. 85° E. 40 miles distant from the mouth of quick Sand river.—

Course Nov. 3d
West   3 miles to the upper mouth of quick Sand 〈mountain〉 river,
Country low on each Side rising to a hilley Countrey passed a
large Creek opposit Std. Side & 2 Sand bars
S. 70° W.   7 miles to the upper point of a large Island Covered with
[blank]    passed the Lower mouth of Sandy river at 3 miles
opposit the head of a large Island Std. Side faced with rocks
and the 〈edge〉 Side is pine & Cotton    a large Creek falls
in oppost to the head of this Island Isld of Fowls [5] as I Saw
Som 1000 pass over to the head of this Island on the Stard
Sd.    passed Some ruged rocks in the middle of the river op-
posit the Island—    river wide The Countrey below quick
Sand river on the Lard Side is low Piney Countrey. Passed the
lower point of the Island at 3½ miles long & 1½ wide—
emence quantity of Geese, Brants, Ducks & Sea otter, Some of
the large & Small kind of Swan, & Sand hill Cranes—also luns
& White gulls
S. 87° W.   3 miles on the North Side of the Island and Encamped    we met
2 Canoes, of Indians 15 in number who informed us they had
Seen 3 Vestles 2 days below us, we Camped on the Island, and
Sent out hunters on it and Capt. Lewis walked out, after Dark
Capt. Lewis with 3 men went into a large Pond on this Island
& killed a Swan & Several ducks.    〈we〉 The Party killed this
day 3 Swan 8 Brant, & 5. The Canoe was borrowed of the
Inds. here & taken over by 4 men into the pond. I gave the
Indians a Brant to eate.

The Fog So thick this morning that we could not See a man 50 Steps off, this fog detained us untill 10 oClock at which time we Set out, accompanied by our Indian friends who are from a village near the great falls, previous to our Setting out Collins killed a large Buck, and Labiech killed 3 Geese flying. I walked on the Sand beech Lard. Side, opposit the canoes as they passed allong. The under groth rushes, vines &c. in the bottoms too thick to pass through, at 3 miles I arrived at the enterance of a river which appeared to Scatter over a Sand bar, the bottom of which I could See quite across and did not appear to be 4 Inches deep in any part; I attempted to wade this Stream and to my astonishment found the bottom a quick Sand, and impassable—    I called to the Canoes to put to Shore, I got into the Canoe and landed below the mouth, & Capt Lewis and my Self walked up this river about 1½ miles to examine this river which we found to be a verry Considerable Stream Dischargeing its waters through 2 Chanels which forms an Island of about 3 miles in length on the river and 1½ miles wide, composed of Corse Sand which is thrown out of this quick Sand river Compressing the waters of the Columbia and throwing the whole Current of its waters against its Northern banks, within a Chanel of ½ a mile wide, Several Small Islands 1 mile up this river, This Stream has much the appearance of the River Platt: roleing its quick Sands into the bottoms with great velocity after which it is divided into 2 Chanels by a large Sand bar before mentioned, the narrowest part of this River is 120 yards—on the Opposit Side of the Columbia a 〈large Creek〉 [NB: Small river called Seal river ] falls in above this Creek    on the Same Side is a Small prarie.    extensive low country on each Side thickly timbered.

The Quick Sand river appears to pass through the low countrey at the foot of those high range of mountains in a Southerly direction,—    The large Creeks which fall into the Columbia on the Stard. Side rise in the Same range of mountains to the N. N. E. and pass through Some ridgey land—    A Mountain which we Suppose to be Mt. Hood is S. 85° E about 47 miles distant from the mouth of quick sand river This mtn. is Covered with Snow and in the range of mountains which we have passed through and is of a Conical form but rugid—    after takeing dinner at the mouth of this river we proceeded on    passed the head of a Island near the lard Side back of which on the Same Side and near the head a large Creek falls in, and nearly opposit & 3 miles below the upper mouth of quick Sand river is the lower mouth, [for?] This Island is 3½ miles long, has rocks at the upper point, Some timber on the borders of this Island in the middle open and ponney [NB: pondy]. Some rugid rocks in the middle of the Stream opposit this Island.    〈proceeded in〉 [NB: proceeded on] to Center of a large Island in the middle of the river which we call Dimond Isld. from its appearance, here we met 15 Indn men in 2 canoes from below, they informed us they Saw 3 vestles below &c. &c.    we landed on the North Side of this Dimond Island and Encamped, [6] Capt. L walked out with his gun on the Island, Sent out hunters & fowlers—    below quick Sand River the Countrey is low rich and thickly timbered on each Side of the river, the Islands open & Some ponds    river wide and emence numbers of fowls flying in every direction Such as Swan, geese, Brants, Cranes, Stalks [NB: Storks], white guls, comerants & plevers &c. [7]    also great numbers of Sea Otter in the river— [8]    a Canoe arrived from the village below the last rapid with a man his wife and 3 children, and a woman whome had been taken prisoner from the Snake Inds. [NB: on a river from the South which we found to be Mulknoma ] on Clarks River [9] I Sent the Interpreters wife who is a So So ne or Snake Indian of the Missouri, to Speake to this Squar, they Could not understand each other Sufficiently to Converse. This familey and the Inds. we met from below continued with us Capt Lewis borrowed a Small Canoe of those Indians & 4 men took her across to a Small lake in the Isld. Cap L. and 3 men Set out after night in this Canoe in Serch of the Swans, Brants Ducks &c. &c. which appeared in great numbers in the Lake, he Killed a Swan and Several Ducks which made our number of fowls this evening 3 Swan, 8 brant and 5 Ducks, on which we made a Sumptious Supper. We gave the Indian—who lent the Canoe a brant, and Some meat to the others.    one of those Indians, the man from the village near the lower Rapids has a gun with a brass barrel & Cock of which he prises highly—    note the mountain we Saw from near the forks proves to be Mount Hood


Sunday 3rd Nov. 1805.    a foggy morning.    the geese verry pleanty on a marshey green below the Camp    one of our hunters Shot Several flying. Several Savages Stayed with us last night    they have 2 canoes with them.    we perceive the tide rise and fall a little at this place.    one of the hunters [10] went out a Short distance to hunt and killed a large Deer.    about 9 oClock we set out and proceeded on    the fog So thick that we could not See across the River.    passd. Several Sand Islands    about noon we halted to dine at the mouth of a River which is filled with quick Sand and is wide and Shallow    our officers name this River Quick Sand River [11] on the Lard. Side.    here we perceive the tide water.    we Saw the round mountain some distance a head which we expect is the Same which was discovred by Lieut. Hood and is called Hoods Mountain. [12]    the after part of the day pleasant    the River is better than a mile wide in general.    towards evening we met several Indians in canoes    they Signed to us that their was Some white people and vessells &C.    passed Several bottoms covred with cotten and oak pine &C.    the Country not so Mountaineous as above.    we came 13 miles this day and Camped [13] on a verry large Island which is mostly prarie and large ponds, which is full of Swan Geese brants and ducks &C. Several Indians Camped with us.    at Sunset we got a small canoe and carried in the pond    Several Swan geese and brants killed by the party to day and this evening.—


Sunday 3rd.    The morning was foggy: one of the men went out and killed a fine buck. At 9 we proceeded on, but could not see the country we were passing, on account of the fog, which was very thick till noon when it disappeared, and we had a beautiful day. We at that time came to the mouth of a river on the south side, a quarter of a mile broad, but not more than 6 or 8 inches deep, running over a bar of quicksand. At this place we dined on venison and goose; and from which we can see the high point of a mountain covered with snow, in about a southeast direction from us. Our Commanding Officers are of opinion that it is Mount Hood, discovered by a Lieutenant of Vancoover, who was up this river 75 miles. The river that falls in here has two mouths, through which it drives out a considerable quantity of sand into the Columbia. Opposite the lower mouth there is a handsome island. At 2 o'clock we proceeded on, and passed another island. The country on both sides appears level and closely timbered: on the river the timber is cotton wood, maple [14] and some ash; and back from it mostly spruce pine. We made 13 miles and encamped on a large island, in which is a large pond full of swans, geese and ducks. On our way and here we killed some of each kind. At night, Captain Lewis had a small canoe carried over to the pond in order to hunt by moon light; but the party did not happen to have good luck, having killed only a swan and three ducks.


Sunday 3rd Nov. 1805.    a foggy morning.    we delayd. untill abt. 9 oClock.    Several men went out a Short distance to hunt.    we Shot Several geese flying over our Camp this morning.    one canoe belonging to the Savages and Several Indians camped with us last night.    a handsom Spring run came in near our Camp.    the fog So thick this morning that we cannot See more than one hundred yards distance.    agreeable to all calculations it cannot be more than two hundred miles from this to the ocean.    one of the men killd. a large buck Deer    we then Set out abt. 9 oC. and proceeded on    the fog continued So thick that we could Scarsely See the Shores or Islands    passed Several Isld.    abt. noon we halted to dine at the mo. of a River which came in on the Lard. Side, the mouth of which was filled with quick Sand So that we could run a pole 6 or 8 feet in it, and it emptyd. in at Several places thro a verry large Sand bar which lay at the mo    we then proceeded on    passd. the mo. of a Small River [15] on Stard.    the after part of the day clear and pleas[ant]    we Saw a high round mountain on the Lard Side which we expect is the Same we Saw abo. the great falls and the Same that Lieut. Hood gave an account off.    (it is nearly covd. with Snow)    we proceeded on the River verry wide better than a mile in general.    a nomber of large Islands &c.    towards evening we met Several Indians in a canoe who were going up the River.    they Signed to us that in two Sleeps we Should See [the Ocean vessels and?] white people &c. &c.    the Country lower and not So mountanous    the River more handsome the current verry gentle.    Some bottoms covered with cotton and pine &c.    passd. a nomber of large Islands.    went about 13 miles and Camped on a verry large & long Island which was mostly prarie and handsome.    a large lake on it.    we have Seen a great many Sea otter in the River ever Since we came to the Big falls.    the geese and Swan ducks and brants &c.    we killed Several Swan geese and brants &c. this day.    a nomber of the Savages Camped with us.    at Sunset we got a Small canoe from them and carried it out to the pond or lake and killed a nomber of large Swan and geese.

Sunday Novemr. 3d    A foggy morning & we delayed setting out till about 9 oClock A. M.    Several of our men went out a short distance for to hunt.—    The party that remained at Camp, shot this morning several Geese as they were flying over our Camp.    One of the Canoes that we saw at the large rapid stopped at the place we encamped, & the Indians that were in her, & several others of the same Nation that came by land staid with us all night.    The fog got so thick that we could not see 100 Yards distance from the Camp.    We find agreeable to the best calculation we can make that we are not more than 200 Miles from the Ocean.    One of the party that went out hunting this morning returned to the Camp and brought with him a large buck Deer which he had killed.    The remainder of the hunters also returned, & had killed a number of Geese & Ducks.    We then set out on our Voyage, the fog continuing so thick, that we could scarcely see the Shores or Islands as we passed along    We saw about 12 o'Clock A. M. several Islands & halted to dine at the Mouth of a River, which came into the Columbia River on the South side.    The mouths or entrance of this River is filled with a quick sand, which we run a pole 8 feet down, & had no solid bottom and it emptied itself by several Mouths

At 2 o'Clock P. M. we passed also the Mouth of a small river, lying on the North side of the Columbia River.    The weather now got clear & pleasant.    We continued on, and saw a high round Mountain, lying on the South side of the River, which we supposed to be the same Mountain, that we saw above the great falls of this River, and believe it to be the same Mountain; that Lieutenant Hood gave an account of when on a Voyage round the World with Captain Cook, This Mountain appeared nearly covered with Snow.    We proceeded on, the River being nearly One Mile & a quarter wide in general, & a number of large Islands in it, laying on both sides of it.—

Towards evening we met with several Indians, who were in a Canoe, & who were going up the River.    The Indians made signs to us, that in 2 Sleeps, (meaning 2 days,) that we should come to a place, where we should see two Vessells, white people &ca.    The country during this day, appears to lay lower than it had been for some time past, & but few mountains to be seen.    The River had a handsomer appearance & the Current of it very gentle.    We passed by some bottom land, lying along the River, which were cover'd with Cotton wood & Pine Trees, and a number of Islands.    We encamped on a very large long Island by us called Swan Island, which was chiefly a Priari, and had a large lake in it, having gone about 13 Miles this day.    We saw in the River ever since we came through the great falls, a great many Sea Otters, Geese, Swans, brants, ducks & other water fowl.—    Our party killed several Geese Swans & Ducks 〈of them〉 this day.    A number of Indians came to the Island that we were encamped on, in Canoes, & encamped with us.    Some of our party borrowed a small Canoe from those Indians, & carried it out to the lake, where they killed a further quantity of Swans & Geese.—

1. Between the camp of November 2 and the mouth of Sandy (Quicksand) River they passed the highest point on the Columbia reached by Lieutenant William Broughton of George Vancouver's expedition in 1792. This was on a large sand island, today's Reed Island, much of which had disappeared by 1805. Thus they returned, for the first time since April 1805, to country previously explored by whites. They also passed the point Broughton named Point Vancouver, having sighted it from the island; the point is about four miles east of Washougal, Clark County, Washington, and across the river from Oregon's Rooster Rock State Park. Barry (BOC); Anderson (SSGV), 116–17; Meany, 264–65; Atlas maps 79, 88. (back)
3. The sand deposited by Sandy River is derived by erosion of mudflows from Mt. Hood containing abundant volcanic ash and volcaniclastic fragments. The mudflow is the last of many and may have occurred less than two hundred years ago—probably just a few years before Lewis and Clark passed through here. Clark was correct about the impact of the Sandy on the Columbia, as its delta has diverted the main stream's channel two miles to the north. Allen (MG), 82. (back)
4. Washougal River, meeting the Columbia near present Washougal; "Seal R" on Atlas map 79. (back)
5. "White Brant Isld" on Atlas map 79, and "Fowl I" on Atlas map 88; apparently later Lady Island. Archaeological work here, although largely unpublished, is noteworthy for the discovery of prehistoric ceramic artifacts associated with occupation of a site on the island approximately 2,000–2,500 years ago. Woodward (ECT). (back)
6. Diamond Island is later Government and McGuire islands, opposite Portland, Multnomah County. The samp was on the island, about three miles west of present Camas, Clark County, Washington. Atlas map 79. (back)
7. Some of these birds may be identified as the sandhill crane, Grus canadensi [AOU, 206], and the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus [AOU, 120]. Although the wood stork, Mycteria americana [AOU, 188], was once considered to be one of the bird's identified, this information may not be valid since its range is well south of Lewis and Clark's path. The swans (noted as the "large & Small kind" in the first entry) would be the trumpeter swan, Cygnus buccinator [AOU, 181], and the tundra, or whistling, swan, C. columbianus [AOU, 180]. See below, March 9, 1806. The other references are too obscure for precise identification. Holmgren, 33; Burroughs, 199–200. (back)
8. The harbor seal. (back)
9. The "Snake" woman was probably a Paiute, but perhaps a Shoshonean whose language was unfamiliar to Sacagawea. Biddle added the red-inked note about the "Mulknoma" knowing the party's discovery of this river on their return journey in April 1806; it is the present Willamette River, meeting the Columbia at Portland. Actually their original supposition that these Indians were living on the "Clark's" River (present Deschutes) was probably correct. Ray & Lurie, 365; Atlas maps 77, 79. (back)
10. Collins, according to Clark. (back)
12. Mt. Hood, Hood River County, Oregon, was named for British Admiral Sir Samuel Hood by Lieutenant William Robert Broughton of George Vancouver's seaborne exploring expedition in 1792. They passed his farthest point on the river this day. (back)
13. On either Government or McGuire islands, opposite and upstream from Portland, Multnomah County. (back)
14. Probably bigleaf maple, Acer macrophyllum Pursh. (back)