November 5, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

November 5, 1805


a Cloudy morning Som rain the after part of last night & this morning. I could not Sleep for the noise kept by the Swans, Geese, white & black brant, Ducks &c. on a opposit base, & Sand hill Crane, they were emensely numerous and their noise horrid. We Set out at Sun rise &

N. 35° W   3 miles to a Stard. point river about ¾ of a mile wide    a Small
prarie on the Std.
N. 30° W.   3 miles to the South West Side of an Island 〈near〉 Seperated
from the Stard. Side by a narrow channel    river widens to
about 1½ miles Green bryor Isd.
N. 12° W.   3 miles to a Lard. point of 2 rocks 〈psd. Ind.〉 opposit the upper
pt. of an Isd. on Std. Side    psd. 2 house on the Lard. Sid,
passed the lower pt. of the Island Std. at 2 miles.    behind this
Island a little above the lower point on the Std. side is a large
village of ¼ of a mile in extent. I counted 14 large houses in
front next the slew    7 canoes loaded with Indians Came up
to See us.    low rock
N. 22° W.   6 miles to a Stard point    passed a large Slew ¼ of a mile wide
or at a ½ of a mile on th Lard. Side Some low rockey clifts
below. The language of those people have a great Similarity
to those above.    met 3 canoes of Indians
N. 30° W. [1]   5 miles to a point of woodland Stard. Side.    a range of high
hills here forms the Stard. bank of the river, the Shore bold
and rocky covered with a thick growth of pine timber an ex-
tensive low 〈bottom〉 Island & bottoms on the Lard. side
passed 2 Islands on Std. & the Lard. pt. on 3d
N. 40° W.   7 m. to a point of woodland Std.    passed the Lower point of
the Island Close under the Lard Side    at 5 miles a Small Is-
land in the middle of the river. passed an old village on the
Island at 3 miles, The high hills leave the river on the Stard. at
3 miles, a high bottom below    met 4 canoes of Indians one of
those canoes had emigies bow & Stern & 26 Indians in them
all [2]
N. 40° W.   5 miles to a point of high piney land on the Lard Side    the
Stard. Shore bold and rockey    passed a Creek at 2 miles on
the Stard Side, below which is an old village.    rained all the
evening and Some fine rain at intervals all day    river wide
& Deep

our hunters killed 10 Brant 4 of which were white with black wings 2 Ducks, and a Swan which were divided, we Came too and Encamped on the Lard. Side under a high ridgey land, [3] the high land come to the river on each Side.    the river about 1½ mile wide.    those high lands rise gradually from the river & bottoms—    we are all wet Cold and disagreeable, rain Continues & encreases. I killed a Pheasent which is very fat— [4]    my feet and legs cold. I saw 17 Snakes to day on a Island, but little appearance of Frost at [tear] this place.


Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I [s]lept but verry little last night for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid—    we Set out 〈at about Sun rise〉 early    here the river is not more than ¾ of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side    passed 2 houses about ½ a mile from each other on the Lard. Side    a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in its mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel [5] at 9 [8?] miles    I observed on the Chanel which passes on the Stard Side of this Island a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village, the front of which occupies nearly ¼ of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses [NB: Quathlapotle nation] [6] in front    here the river widens to about 1½ miles. Seven canoes of Indians came out from this large village to view and trade with us, they appeared orderly and well disposed, they accompanied us a fiew miles and returned back.    about 1½ miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point, we passed a Chanel ¼ of a mile wide, [7] which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island [X: So named] a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel, a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit, [8] and 2 Small Islands, below, here we met 2 canoes from below,—    below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river, the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine    an extensive low Island, [9] Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with 〈Small〉 grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer    our hunters killed on this Island a Swan, 4 white 6 Grey brant & 2 Ducks all of them were divided, below the lower point of this Island, I saw Several deer our hunters killed on this Island a Swan, 4 white 6 Grey brant & 2 Ducks all of them were divided, below the lower point of this Island a range of high hills [10] which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river    the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river. We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man—    we landed on the Lard. Side & camped a little below the mouth of a creek [11] on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned—; [12] here the river is about one and a half miles wide. and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable—    I saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call 〈Wap-pa-too Columbia〉 [NB: Columbian Valley] [13] from the root or plants growing Spontaniously in this valley only In my walk of to Day I saw 17 Striped Snakes    I killed a grouse which was verry fat, and larger than Common. This is the first night which we have been entirely clear of Indians Since our arrival on the waters of the Columbia River. We made 32 miles to day by estimation—


Tuesday 5th Nov. 1805.    hard rain the later part of last night.    we proceeded on about 10 miles and passed a verry large village at the foot of an Island [14] on the Stard. Side    they have a number of canoes    Some of the Savages came out in the River in their canoes to See us    they wanted to trade with us for muskets    offered us dressed Elk Skins.    passed Several Islands    Some of the hunters killed one Swan and Several brants.    we had Several Small Showers of rain    we Came 31 miles to day and Camped on the Lard. Shore—    the pine hills make close to River


Tuesday 5th.    We embarked very early. Some rain fell last night about 2 o'clock, and the morning was cloudy. We passed several handsome islands, generally near the shore, on the one side or the other of the river. The county on both sides is somewhat higher than what we passed yesterday, and closely covered with spruce timber. The bottoms are large, covered with cotton wood, maple, and the like kinds of wood. We passed a great many Indian camps, their lodges made chiefly of poles and cedar bark. At noon we stopped about an hour at an island, and some of the men went out and killed nine brants and a swan. Three of the brants [15] were quite white except the points of their wings, which were black. We proceeded on in the afternoon, during which some rain and a little hail fell; went 31 miles and encamped on the north side. Here the tide rises and falls 4 feet.


Tuesday 5th Nov. 1805.    began to rain abt. one oClock last night and rained untill morn.    the morning cloudy.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on verry well    the River verry Strait.    passd. Islands as usal [16]    abt. 10 miles [page torn] the largest village we have [page torn] the S. Side.    the cabbens [page torn] they had a great no[mber] [page torn]    Some of them got in their [canoes and] came out in the River to See us.    they wanted to trade us Elk Skins for muskets.    we proceeded on 20 miles Since we Started this morng. and halted about 1 oC. to dine on an Isl. [17]    Several men went out a Short time to hunt, and killed one Swan and Several brants.    we then proceeded on.    passed one or 2 more villages    had Several Small Showers of rain    the Isld. continues all the way covd. with cotton timber.    the bottoms cont. as usal.    we went 31 miles to day and Camped on the Lard. Side where the pine hills make close to the River    and Some clifts of rocks on L. Shore.    the River about a mile wide    this evening rainy.—

Tuesday Novemr. 5th    It began to rain about one o'Clock last night, and continued till day light & This morning was Cloudy.    We set out early on our Voyage, & found the River run very strait, & grew wider.    We passed a number of large Islands for the distance of 10 Miles, and then went by the largest Indian Village that we had yet seen on this River; This village lay on the South side of the River.    The Cabbins in this Village all joined, and the Indians belonging to this Village, had a great number of Canoes.    Some of the Indians from this Village, came out with their Canoes in the River to us; & wanted to Trade us Elk skins, for Muskets, or Guns of any kind, but our Officers refused, we having not more Rifles than what we wanted.    We proceeded on, and halted about 1 o'Clock to dine on an Island, where several of our Men went out & killed a swan & several Brants.—

We continued on our Voyage at 2 o'Clock P. M, & passed 2 More Indian Villages, lying on the South side of the River.    The Islands still continued as we passed down the River all the way, we went this day; & we had frequently small showers of rain.    The Islands I have last mentioned, were covered with Cotton wood, & other timber.    The bottom land along the shore, continue the same as those I last mentioned.    We came about 31 Miles this day, & encamped on the North side of the River, where hills covered with pine Trees made close into the River, & some Clifts of Rocks.    This evening continued Rainey.    the River was about 1 Mile wide at this place.

1. This course and remarks and part of the next appear to be in Lewis's handwriting. (back)
2. A subtotal of "27" appears on the top of the next page after this course. (back)
3. In Columbia County, Oregon, southeast of present Rainier, perhaps near Prescott. Atlas map 80. (back)
4. Perhaps the Oregon ruffed grouse (called a grouse in Clark's second entry), Bonasa umbellus sabini, now combined with B. umbellus [AOU, 300], and new to science. See descriptions below, February 5 and March 3, 1806. Burroughs, 218–19; Cutright (LCPN), 430; Holmgren, 32. (back)
5. Apparently the outlet of Lewis River, now the boundary between Clark and Cowlitz counties, Washington. The island may be Bachelor Island ("green bryor Isd" on Atlas map 89). Lewis River is "Chah wah na hi ook" on Atlas maps 79, 80. (back)
6. The Cathlapotles were an Upper Chinookan-language group living on the Columbia and lower Lewis rivers in Clark County. Hodge, 1:217; Spier, 21; Swanton, 414–15; Atlas maps 80, 89. The name is Chinookan gal\ápuiƛx, "(those of) Lewis River," from náp̓uiƛx, "Lewis River." Silverstein. The Cathlapotle village at the mouth of Lewis River was called Nahpooitle (Hodge 2:217); it is shown on Atlas map 80 on the Washington shore across from the lower of end of Sauvie ("Wappâto") Island. There are two archaeological sites in this vicinity. The principal Cathlapotle village has not been formally excavated, but a large artifact collection from this area has been described. Minor (CAC). The other site, consisting of a series of seasonal camps located along Lake River upstream from the village, has been extensively tested. The occupation of these camps spans the last 2,000 years. Abramowitz; Minor & Toepel. Biddle wrote the interlineation in red ink. (back)
7. The channel behind Sauie ("Wappâto") Island, in Washington and Columbia counties, Oregon. Atlas map 80. (back)
8. The supposed island was apparently crossed out on Atlas maps 80, 88, but the two small islands were retained, perhaps today's Burke and Martin islands. (back)
9. "E-lal-lar or Deer Isd." on Atlas map 80; still Deer Island, in Columbia County. The term is Upper Chinookan ilálx̣, "deer." Gibbs (AVC), 11. (back)
10. Part of the Coast Ranges. (back)
11. The Kalama River, nameless but labeled "20 yds." on Atlas map 80, in Cowlitz County. (back)
12. This may be the village of the Lakjalamas (or Klakalama or Thlakalama), an Upper Chinookan-language group residing at the mouth of the Kalama River, Cowlitz County. Hodge, 2:743; Spier, 23, Hajda, 111–12. The place is named "Cath-la-haw's Village" on Atlas map 80, which is from Chinookan gal\áx̣awš, "the ones who have cous roots," and the people are called "Cal-la-maks" in the Estimate of Western Indians. (back)
13. It appears that Clark had substituted "Columbia" for "Wap-pa-too," then Biddle crossed both out in red and placed his interlineation. (back)
14. The party's Green Bryor Island, now Bachelor Island, near the mouth of Lewis River, the boundary between Clark and Cowlitz counties, Washington. (back)
15. Snow goose, Chen caerulescens. (back)
16. Including Bachelor Island, their Green Bryor Island, near the mouth of Lewis River, the boundary between Clark and Cowlitz counties, Washington. (back)
17. The captains called it El-lal-lar or Deer Island; it is still Deer Island, Columbia County, Oregon. The Indians of this day are the Cathlapotles. (back)