January 10, 1806
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

January 10, 1806


About 10 A. M. I was visited by Tia Shâh-hâr-wâr-cap [1] and eleven of his nation in one large canoe; these are the Cuth'-lah-mah' nation who reside first above us on the South Side of the Columbia river; this is the first time that I have seen the Chief, he was hunting when we past his vilage on our way to this place. I gave him a medal of the smallest size; [2] he presented me with some indian tobacco and a bacquit of wappetoe, in return for which I gave him some thread for making a skiming net and a small piece of tobacco.    these people speak the same language with the Chinnooks and Catsops whom they also resemble in their dress customs manners &c.    they brought some dryed salmon, wappetoe, dogs, and mats made of rushes and flags, to barter; their dogs and a part of their wappetoe they disposed off, an remained all night near the fort. This morning Drewyer and Collins returned having killed two Elk only, and one of those had died in their view over a small lake which they had not the means of passing it being late in the evening and has of course spoiled, as it laid with the 〈guts〉 entrals in it all night; as the tide was going out we could not send for the elk today, therefore ordered a party to go for it early in the morning and George and Collins to continue their hunt; meat has now become scarce with us.—

Capt Clark returned at 10 P. M. this evening with the majority of the party who accompanyed him; having left some men to assist the saltmakers to bring in the meat of two Elk which they had killed, and sent 2 others through by land to hunt. Capt. Clark found the whale on the Coast about 45 Miles S. E. of Point 〈Adams〉 [X: Round], and about 35 Miles from Fort Clatsop by the rout he took; The whale was already pillaged of every valuable part by the Killamucks, in the vicinity of one of whose villages it lay on the strand where the waves and tide had driven up and left it.    this skelleton measured one hundred and five feet. Capt. C. found the naives busily engaged in boiling the blubber, which they performed in a large wooden trought by means of hot stones; the oil when extracted was secured in bladders and the guts of the whale; the blubber, from which the oil was only partially extracted by this process, was laid by in their lodges in large fliches for uce; this they usually expose to the fire on a wooden spit untill it is pretty well warmed through and then eat it either alone or with the roots of the rush, squawmash, fern wappetoe &c. The natives although they possessed large quantities of this blubber and oil were so penurious that they disposed of it with great reluctance and in small quantities only; insomuch that the utmost exertions of Capt. C. and the whole party aided by the little stock of merchandize he had taken with him and some small articles which the men had, were not able to procure more blubber than about 300 lb. and a few gallons of the oil; this they have brought with them, and small as the store is, we prize it highly, and thank 〈the hand of〉 providence 〈which had〉 for directing the whale to us, and think him much more kind to us than he was jonah, having sent this monster to be swallowed by us in stead of swallowing of us as jona's did. Capt. C. found the road along the coast extreemly difficult of axcess, lying over some high rough and stoney hills, one of which he discribes as being much higher than the others, having it's base washed by the Ocea[n] over which it rares it's towering summit perpendicularly to the hight of 1500 feet; from this summit Capt. C. informed me that there was a delightfull and most extensive view of the Ocean, the coast and adjacent country; this Mout. I have taken the liberty of naming Clark's Mountain and point of view; it is situated about 30 M. S. E. of Point 〈Adams〉 [NB?: Disapointment ] and projects about 2½ miles into the Ocean; Killamucks [NB: Qu. Clatsop] river falls in a little to the N. W. of this mountain; in the face of this tremendious precepice there is a stra of white earth (see specimen No. [blank]) which the neighbouring Indians use to paint themselves, and which appears to me to resemble the earth of which the French Porcelain is made; I am confident this earth contains Argill, but wether it also contains Silex or magnesia, or either of those earths in a proper proportion I am unable to determine.—    Shannon and Gass were found with the Salt makers and ordered to return McNeal was near being assassinated by a Killamuck Indian, but fortunately escaped in consequence of a Chinnook woman giving information to Capt. C., the party and Indians with them before the villain had prepaired himself to execute his purposes. The party returned excessively fortiegued and tired of their jaunt. Killamucks [NB: Clatsop] river is 85 yards wide, rappid and 3 feet deep in the shallowest part. The Killamucks in their habits customs manners dress and language differ but little from the Clatsops & Chinnooks.    they place their dead in canoes resting on the ground uncovered, having previously secured the dead bodies in an oblong box of plank.

The coast in the neighbourhood of Clarks Mountain is sliping off & falling into the Ocean in immence masses; fifty or a hundred Acres at a time give way and a great proportion in an instant precipitated into the Ocean.    these hills and mountains are principally composed of a yellow clay; there sliping off or spliting assunder at this time is no doubt caused by the incessant rains which have fallen within the last two months.    the country in general as about Fort Clatsop is covered with a very heavy growth of severalspecies of pine & furr, also the arbor vita or white cedar and a small proportion of the black Alder which last sometimes grows to the hight of sixty or seventy feet, and from two to four feet in diameter.    some species of the pine rise to the immence hight of 210 feet and are from 7 to 12 feet in diameter, and are perfectly sound and solid.—


I left Sergt. Gass here and Set out at Sun rise, Crossed the little river [4] which I waded 85 yards wide & 3 feet Deep Swift, at which place I Saw Several Indians one of which had 2 butifull Sea orter Skins on as a roabe, 〈I proceded on〉 here the Creek which I crossed at a tree and on which I camped the 6th inst. came within [illegible interlineation of three letters] 200 yds of the river & they Inds. make a portage here, Continued on a place 3 miles Crossed this Creek in a Small Canoe.    here I expected to find Shannon and gibson with meet to furnish the Salt makers, but did not, divided the party Sent 2 men to my right to try and kill Elk, Soon after met Gibson & Shannon with meat, they had killed 2 Elk 2 miles to my right, 〈we〉 I divided the meat between the party, and the load of 3 men whome I Send with gibson & Shannon to help Carrey the 2 Elk to the Salt makers, and I my Self and the party returned by the Same rout we went out to the Canoes    Rd. Frasure beheaved very badly, and mutonous— [5] he also lost his 〈big〉 large Knife. I Sent him back to look for his knife, with Directions to return with the party of Serjt Gass, I proceded on, here is a portage of ¼ of a mile from this Creck to a branch which falls into the Bay, we proceeded on a much bette road than we went out across a Deep Slash and found our Canoes Safe, and Set out at Sunset, and arived at the foart, wet and Cold at 9 oClock P. M.    found a Cheif & number of Indians both Encamped on the Shore, and at the fort of the 〈Cha〉 Cath la-hur Tribe which lives at no great distance above this back of an Island Close under the South Side of the Columbia River

Those people Speake the Same Language of the Clotsops dress nearly alike    the men of both Cut their hair in the neck.    use blankets of 〈this〉 the manifactory of the nativs near the falls of the Sheep Wool—fond of brass arm bands and Check, They bring Wap-pa-to root (which is Sagittifolia or the Common arrow head which is Cultivated by the Chinees) to Sell. [6]


I derected Serjt. Gass to Continue with the Salt makers untill Shannon return from hunting, and then himself and Shannon to return to the Fort, I Set out at Sunrise with the party waded the Clat Sop river which I found to be 85 Steps across and 3 feet deep, on the opposite Side a Kil a mox Indian Came to and offered to Sell Some roots of which I did not want, he had a robe made of 2 large Sea otter Skins which I offered to purchase, but he would not part with them, we returned by nearly the Same rout which I had Come out, at four miles, I met Gibson & Shannon each with a load of meat, they informed me that they had killed Elk about 2 miles off, I directed 3 men to go with the hunters and help them pack the meat to the place they were makeing Salt, and return to the fort with Serjt. Gass, the balance of the party took the load of the 3 men, after crossing the 2d Creek frasure informed me that he had lost his big knife, here we Dined, I put frasurs load on my guide who is yet with me, and Sent him back in Serch of his knife with directions to join the other men who were out packing meat & return to the fort all together. I arrived at the Canoes about Sunset, the tides was Comeing in    I thought it a favourable time to go on to the fort at which place we arrived at 10 oClock P M, found Several inidians of the Cath'-lâh-mâh nation the great Chief Shâh-hâr-wâh cop who reside not far above us on the South Side of the Columbia River, this is the first time I have Seen the Chief, he was hunting when we passed his village on our way to this place, we gave him a medal of the Smallest Size, he presented me with a basquet of Wappato, in return for which I gave him a fish hook of a large Size and Some wire, those people Speak the Same language with the Chinnooks and Clatsops, whome they all resemble in Dress, Custom, manners &c.    they brought Some Dried Salmon, Wappato, Dogs, and mats made of rushes & flags to barter; their Dogs and part of their wappato they disposed of, and remained in their Camp near the fort all night.

In my absence the hunters from the fort killed only two Elk which is yet out in the woods. Capt. Lewis examined our Small Stock of merchendize found Some of it wet and Dried it by the fire. Our merchindize is reduced to a mear handfull, and our Comfort, dureing our return next year, much depends on it, it is therefore almost unnecessary to add that it is much reduced    T[he] nativs in this neighbourhood are excessively fond of Smokeing tobacco.    in the act of Smokeing they appear to Swallow it as they draw it from the pipe, and for maney draughts together you will not perceive the Smoke they take from the pipe, in the Same manner they inhale it in their longs untill they become Surcharged with the vapour when they puff it out to a great distance through their norstils and mouth; I have no doubt that tobacco Smoked in this manner becomes much more intoxicating, and that they do possess themselves of all its virtues to the fullest extent; they frequently give us Sounding proofs of its createing a dismorallity of order in the abdomen, nor are those light matters thought indelicate in either Sex, but all take the liberty of obeying the dicktates of nature without reserve. Those people do not appear to know the use of Speritious licquors, they never haveing once asked us for it; I prosume therefore that the traders who visit them have never indulged them with the use of it; of whatever Cause this may proceed, it is a verry fortunate occurrence, as well for the nativs themselves, as for the quiet and Safty of those whites who visit them. George Drewyer visited this traps in my absence and caught a Beaver & a otter; the beaver was large and fat, and Capt. L. has feested Sumptiously on it yesterday; this we Consider as a great prize, it being a full grown beaver was well Supplyed with the materials for makeing bate with which to Catch others. this bate when properly prepared will entice the beaver to visit it as far as he can Smell it, and this I think may be Safely Stated at ½ a mile, their Sence of Smelling being verry acute. To prepare beaver bate, [7] the Caster or bark Stone is taken as the base, this is generally pressed out of the bladder like bag which Contains it, into a phiol of 4 ounces with a wide mouth; if you have them you will put from 4 to 6 Stone in a phial of that Capacity, to this you will add half a nutmeg, a Dozen or 15 grains of Cloves and 30 grains of Sinimon finely pulverised, Stur them well together, and then add as much ardent Sperits to the Composition as will reduce it to the Consistancey of mustard prepared for the table, when thus prepared it resembles mustard precisely to all appearance. When you cannot precure a phial a bottle made of horn or a light earthern vessel will answer, in all Cases it must be excluded from the air or it will Soon lose its Virtue; it is fit for use imediately 〈as So〉 it is prepared but becoms much Stronger and better in 4 or 5 days and will keep for months provided it be purfectly Secluded from the air.    when Cloves are not to be had use double the quantity of allspice, and when no Spices can be obtained use the bark of the root of the Sausafras; when Sperits cannot be had use oil Stone of the beaver adding mearly a Sufficent quantity to moisten the other materials, or reduce it to a Stiff paste.    it appears to me that the principal use of the Spices is only to give a variety to the Scent of the bark Stone and if So the mace vineller, and other Sweet Smelling Spices might be employd with equal advantage. The Male Beaver has Six stones, two which Contanes a Substance much like finely pulverised bark of a pale yellow Colour and not unlike tanner's ooz in Smell, these are Called the bark Stones or castors; two others, which like the bark stone resemble Small blatters, contain a pure oil of a Strong rank disagreable Smell, and not unlike train Oil, these are Called the Oil Stones, and two others of Generation. The bark stones are about 2 inches in length, the others Somewhat Smaller, all are of a long Oval form, and lye in a bunch together between the skin and the root of the tail beneath or behind the fundiment with which they are Closely Connected and Seam to Communicate, the pride of the female lye on the inner Side much like those of the hog they have no further parts of Generation that I can proceive, and therefore believe that like the birds they Coperate with the extremity of the gut. The female have from 2 to 4 young ones at a birth and bring forth once a year only which usially happins about the Latter end of May and beginning of June.    at this State She is Said to drive the Mail from the lodge, who would otherwise distroy the young—.


Friday 10th Jany. 1806.    a clear pleasant day    about noon the 2 hunters returned    had killed one Elk.    towards evening 12 Savages [8] came to the fort with wap a toes roots to trade.    we bought Some from them and 2 dogs also.    in the evening Capt. Clark and the most of his party returnd. to the fort and informed us that they had been abt. 25 miles along the Sea coast about a South course.    they passed over verry Steep high rough rockey mountains to git to the whail.    the natives Shewed them the fraim of a verry [large?] whail which had been some time dead    it was 100.5 feet in length, [9] and proportined accordingly.    they brought some of the jaw bones and some other black bones which are handsome.    their was Several villages along the coast of different tribes which lived mostly on whail meat, and fish, Some Seals &C.    they had a large quantity by them.    they Saw a great many bones of whails along the Shore.    one night our men were Camped near a Small village on a Small River, one of our men Hugh Mcneal went to the village by himself withot any arms.    an Indian which belonged to Some other nation came to Mcneal and took him out with a design to kill him for his blanket. Some of the other Indians who wishd us well called across the creek to our men. Several went with arms to his assistance    the indian hearing the alarm ran from him with his long knife without injury. [10]    this Creek was named by Capt. Clark Mcneals folley [11] and the Mountain which they crossed made out in the ocean he called Capt. Clarks view. [12]    they bought and brought in considerable of whail meat, and the oil    Several of the men Stayed at the Salt Camps.


Friday 10th.    The morning was fine and Captain Clarke and his party started, and I remained at this camp, to wait the return of the man who had come with me and who was out hunting. [13] The 11th was also pleasant, and I proceeded with a party [14] for the fort; where about nine o'clock we arrived the next day. Two hunters had gone out from the fort in the morning, and killed seven elk about two miles from it.


Friday Janry 10th    A Clear pleasant day, about noon, the two hunters that had went out two days past from the fort hunting returned.    they killed one Elk & wounded two more of them.    Towards evening 12 Indians [15] of the Clatsop Nation came to the fort.    They brought Wapatoes & other Roots to trade with us.    We purchased from them some of these Roots & 2 of their dogs.    In the evening late Captain Clark & some of the party returned to the Fort.    they informed us that they had been about 25 Miles along the Sea Coast, nearly a South course to see the Whale, [16] expecting to get some of the Meat of it, and that they had to pass over rough rockey mountains, [17] to get to the place where the whale lay, & that the Indians had showed them, to where a whale lay; which had been a long time Dead, which was on a very large Rock.    It was about 105 feet long & every way proportionable.    the head was shaped they said like the bow of a Vessell nearly.    The party got some of the Jaw bones &ca.    They mentioned, that there was several small Indian Villages along the Coast that they had been, & that they belong'd to different tribes of Indians, [18] which lived on the Whales that was thrown ashore by the Waves, in tempestuous Weather.    These Indians had a great Quantity of the flesh of Whales, which they had got, from some other place, than the one, that they had been at.    they also mentioned, that the Bones of whales lay along the shore in great abundance.    they also informed us, that one Night whilst they were gone, that they lay near a Creek, & that one of their party had went to an Indian Village, without letting the party know it, & that while he was eating some fish, which 〈the〉 an Indian had given him, that an another Indian made signs to him to follow him, that he went along with him, not thinking that any harm was in the way.    This Indian had a design to kill the Man belonging to that party, for his blanket.    Some other Indians belonging to a different Nation, from the one that our man had went with, called over the Creek to our party of Men.    The party finding that one of their party by the name of McNeal was missing, dreaded the consequence & several of the party went to his assistance.    The Indian that had carred off this Man of the party, on hearing the noise made by the other Indians fled; leaving our Man McNeal by himself. [19]    This Creek was named by Captain Clarke McNeals folly, [20] & the Montain he named Clarks View .    The party purchased some of the meat of the whale & Oil from the Natives, & brought some of it to the fort.    Captain Clark had left some of the party at the Salt Camp.—

1. The term is Chinookan Tia, "chief," Šax̣awaq̓ap, meaning unknown. (back)
2. Probably the 55 mm Jefferson medal, the smallest of the three presidential sizes. However, it may be the somewhat mysterious "5th Sise" of medal, referred to in the Baling Invoices of the Fort Mandan Miscellany. Prucha speculates that this fifth size could be an American silver dollar pierced for suspension as a medal, as mentioned above, October 29, 1804. Prucha (IPM), 17, 93, 94; Cutright (LCIPM), 162–63. (back)
3. This ends daily entries in the draft for Clark's excursion of the whale site. Then follows a number of tables and summaries that will be found in appropriate places in this edition (many in Fort Clatsop Miscellany). (back)
4. Necanicum River, Clatsop County, Oregon. Atlas map 84; fig. 13. (back)
5. The Codex I reference to Frazer for the day mentions only his being sent back for his knife, saying nothing about mutinous behavior. Neither the Orderly Book nor any other journal says anything about a trial or punishment for mutiny. Evidently Clark, perhaps after consulation with Lewis, decided that Frazer's behavior during the difficult and trying trip to and from the whale site was not serious enough to warrant disciplinary action. (back)
6. Under this paragraph, apparently in Clark's hand, are several indeterminable words and letters in red ink. One word appears to be "Dawson." (back)
7. Beginning with this sentence a red vertical line runs to the end of this entry, perhaps done by Biddle. (back)
8. Including Shar-har-war-cap, a chief, and eleven others of the Cathlamet tribe. (back)
9. Clark on January 8 says the whale was 105 feet long; it may have been a blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. (back)
10. Clark reports this incident in his entries of January 8 and 9. (back)
11. Clark does not mention this name for the river he called Ecola Creek after the Chinookan word for whale, but Whitehouse uses it. The creek's name, formerly Elk, has been restored to Clark's designation; it is in Clatsop County, Oregon. (back)
13. Shannon. (back)
14. Evidently including Shannon, Frazer, and Gibson. See Clark's entry for this date. (back)
15. Including Shar-har-war-cap, a chief, and eleven others of the Cathlamet tribe. (back)
16. Probably a blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, at Cannon Beach, Clatsop County, Oregon. See Clark's entries of January 6–10, 1806. (back)
17. The rugged headland they called Clark's Point of View, now Tillamook Head, on the coast of Clatsop County. (back)
18. The people living in the vicinity of the whale site were Tillamooks, Kilamox to the party, belonging to the coastal branch of the Salishan language family. (back)
19. Clark reports this incident in his entries of January 8 and 9. (back)
20. Clark does not mention this name for the river he called Ecola Creek after the Chinookan word for whale, but Ordway uses it. The creek's name, formerly Elk, has been restored to Clark's designation; it is in Clatsop County. (back)