January 22, 1806
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January 22, 1806


The party [1] sent for the meat this morning returned with it in the Evening; it was in very inferior order, in short the animals were poor. Reubin Fields also remained with the other hunters Shannon & Labuish our late supply of salt is out.    we have not yet heared a sentence from the other two parties of hunter's [2] who are below us towards Point Adams and the Praries.

There are three speies of fern in this neighbourhood the root [3] one of which the natves eat; this grows very abundant in the open uplands and praries where the latter are not sandy and consist of deep loose rich black lome. [4]    the root is horizontal sometimes a little deverging or obliquely descending, frequently dividing itself as it proceded into two equal branches and shooting up a number of stems; it lies about 4 Inces beneath the surface of the earth.    the root is celindric, with few or no radicles and from the size of a goose quill to that of a man's finger; the center of the root is divided into two equal parts by a strong flat & white ligament like a piece of thin tape    on either side of this there is a white substance which when the root is roasted in the embers is much like wheat dough and not very unlike it in flavour, though it has also a pungency which becomes more visible after you have chewed it some little time; this pungency was disagreeable to me, but the naives eat it very voraciously and I have no doubt but it is a very nutricious food.    the bark of the root is black, somewhat rough, thin and brittle, it easily seperates in flakes from the part which is eaten as dose also the internal liggament.    this root perennil. in rich lands this plant rises to the hight of from 4 to five feet.    the stem is smooth celindric, slightly groved on one side erect about half it's hight on the 2 first branches thence reclining backwards from the grooved side; it puts forth it's branches which are in reallyty long footstalks by pares from one side only and near the edges of the groove, these larger footstalks are also grooved cilindric and gradually tapering towards the extremity, puting forth alternate footstalks on either side of the grove near it's edge; these lesser footstalks the same in form as the first put forth from forty to fifty alternate pinate leaves which are sessile, horizontal, multipartite for half their length from the point of insertion and terminating in a long shaped apex, and are also revolute with the upper disk smoth and the lower slightly cottanny.    these alternate leaves after proceeding half the length of the footstalk cease to be partite and assume the tongue like form altogether.    this plant produces no flower or fruit whatever, is of a fine green colour in summar and a beautifull plant.    the top is annual and is of course dead at present.—


The party Sent for the meat this morning returned with it in the evening;    it was in verry inferior order, in Short the animals were pore. Rieuben Field Shannon and Labiech remained in the woods to hunt.    our late Supply of Salt is out.    we have not heard a word of the other hunters who are below us towards point adams and the Praries. Some rain this day at intervales—

there are three Species of fern in this neighbourhood the root one of which the nativs eate; that of which the nativs eate produce no flowers whatever or fruit of a fine green Colour and the top is annual, and in Course dead at present. [5]

I observe no difference between the licorice [6] of this Countrey and that Common to maney parts of the United States where it is sometimes Cultivated in our gardins—.    this plant delights in a deep lose Sandy Soil; here it grows verry abundant and large; the nativs roste it in the embers and pound it Slightly with a Small Stick in order to make it Seperate more readily from the Strong liggaments which forms the center of the root; this they discard and chew and Swallow the ballance of the root; this last is filled with a number of thin membrencies like network, too tough to be masticated and which I find it necessary also to discard. This root when roasted possesses an agreeable flavour not unlike the Sweet potato. The root of the thistle (described yesterday) after undergoing the process of Sweting or bakeing in a kiln is Sometimes eaten with the train oil also, at other times pounded fine and mixed with Cold water, untill reduced to the Consistancy of Gruel; in this way I think it verry agreeable.    but the most valuable of all their roots is foreign to this neighbourhood I mean the Wappetoe.

The Wappetoe, or bulb of the Sagitifolia or common arrow head, which grows in great abundance in the marshey grounds of that butifull and fertile vally on the Columbia commenceing just above the quick Sand River and extending downwards for about 70 miles.    this bulb forms a principal article of trafic between the inhabitents of the vally and those of their neighbourhood or Sea coast.


Wednesday 22nd    I and 14 more of the party went with one canoe after the Elk meat.    a hard Storm of rain and verry high wind.    we had a disagreeable time of it.    three of the hunters [7] Stayed out to hunt.


Wednesday Janry 22nd    A hard storm of Wind & Rain    14 of our party & myself went with a Canoe after the Elk meat, & had a very disagreeable time of it.    Three of our hunters [8] staid out hunting all this day.—

1. Sergeant Ordway says he was with this party. (back)
2. Apparently Colter and Willard made up one of these parties. Drouillard and Lepage the other. See below, January 24, 1806. (back)
3. Western bracken fern. (back)
4. Quaternary terrace deposits of sand and gravel underlie much of the Lewis and Clark River valley. Away from the river bluffs these deposits are commonly overlain by terrace deposits consisting mainly of silt and clay. (back)
5. In the next two paragraphs red vertical lines cross out portions of the botanical descriptions, perhaps done by Biddle. (back)
6. Clark is here borowing from Lewis's entry of January 24 and describing the sea-shore lupine. By the liquorice of the country he means the wild liquorice, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (Nutt.) Pursh (as noted on May 8, 1805), and in comparison to the cultivated liquorice, G. glabra L. Lewis is mistaken in the lupine being large; it is actually a prostrate plant. He may have been seeing only the root at this point with additional information coming from the natives. Cutright (LCPN), 265, discusses the question of identifying the plant. See also the entries of November 17 and December 27, 1805. (back)