March 11, 1806
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March 11, 1806


Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a small canoe loaded with fish which he had obtained from the Cathlahmah's for a very small part of the articles he had taken with him.    the wind had prevented his going to the fisery on the opposite side of the river above the Wackiacums, and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as early as he would otherwise have been back.— The dogs at the Cathlahmahs had bitten the trong assunder which confined his canoe and she had gone a drift.    he borrowed a canoe from the Indians in which he has returned.    he found his canoe on the way and secured her, untill we return the Indians their canoe, when she can be brought back. Sent Sergt. Gass and a party in surch of a canoe which was reported to have been sunk in a small creek on the opposite side of the Netul a few miles below us, where she had been left by Shields R. Fields and Frazier when they were lately sent out to hunt over the Netul. They returned and reported that they could not find the canoe she had broken the cord by which she was attatched, and had been carried off by the tide. Drewyer Joseph Fields and Frazier set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to hunt as they had been directed the last evening.    we once more live in clover; Anchovies fresh Sturgeon and Wappetoe.    the latter Sergt. Pryor had also procured and brought with him. The reptiles of this country are the rattlesnake garter snake and the common brown Lizzard. The season was so far advanced when we arrived on this side of the rocky mountains that but few rattlesnakes were seen I did not remark one particularly myself, nor do I know whether they are of either of the four speceis found in the different parts of the United States, or of that species before mentioned peculiar to the upper parts of the Missouri and it's branches. The garter snake [1] so called in the United states is very common in this country; they are found in great numbers on the open and sometimes marshey grounds in this neighbourhood.    they differ not at all from those of the U' States.    the black or dark brown lizzard [2] we saw at the rock fort Camp at the commencement of the woody country [3] below the great narrows and falls of the Columbia; they are also the same with those of the United States. The snail [4] is numerous in the woody country on this coast; they are in shape like those of the United States, but are at least five times their bulk. There is a speceis of water lizzard [5] of which I saw one only just above the grand rapids of the Columbia.    it is about 9 inches long the body is reather flat and about the size of a mans finger covered with a soft skin of a dark brown colour with an uneven surface covered with little pimples the neck and head are short, the latter terminating in an accute angular point and flat.    the fore feet each four toes, the hinder ones five unconnected with a web and destitute of tallons.    it's tail was reather longer than the body and in form like that of the Musk-rat, first rising in an arch higher than the back and decending lower than the body at the extremity, and flated perpendicularly.    the belley and under part of the neck and head were of a brick red every other part of the colour of the upper part of the body a dark brown.    the mouth was smooth, without teeth.


Early this morning Sergt. Pryor arrived with a Small Canoe loaded with fish which he had obtained from the Cath-lah-mah's for a very Small part of the articles he had taken with him.    the wind had prevented his going to the fishery on the opposit Side of the river above the Waukie-cum's, and also as we had suspected, prevented his return as early as he otherwise would have been back. The dogs of the Cathlahmah's had bitten the throng assunder which confined his canoe and she had gorn adrift.    he borrowed a Canoe from the Indians in which he has returned.    he found his canoe on the way and Secured her, untill we return the Indians their Canoe—Sent Sergt. Gass and a party in Serch of one of our Canoes which was reported to have been lost from a hunting party of Shields R. Field & Frazier when they were last out on the opposit Side of the Netul.    they returned and reported that they Could not find the Canoe which had broken the Cord with which it was attached, and was caried off by the tide. Drewyer Jo. Field & Frazier Set out by light this morning to pass the bay in order to hunt as they had been directed last evening.    we once more live in Clover; Anchovies fresh Sturgeon and Wappatoe.    the latter Sergt. Pryor had also procured a fiew and brought with him. The Deer of this Coust differ from the Common Deer, fallow Deer or Mule Deer as has beformentioned.

The Mule Deer [6] we have never found except in rough Country; they prefer the Open Grounds and are Seldom found in the wood lands near the river; when they are met with in the wood lands or river bottoms and pursued, they imediately run to the hills or open country as the Elk do, the Contrary happens with the common Deer.    there are Several differences between the mule and common deer as well as in form as in habits.    they are fully a third larger in general, and the male is particularly large; think there is Somewhat greater disparity of Size between the Male and Female of this Species than there is between the male and female fallow Deer; I am Convinced I have Seen a Buck of this Species twice the volume a Buck of the Common Deer.    the Ears are peculiarly large, I measured those of a large Buck 〈of this Species〉 which I found to be eleven inches long and 3½ in width at the widest part; they are not so delicately formed, their hair in winter is thicker longer and of a much darker grey, in Summer the hair is Still coarser longer and of a paler red, more like that of the Elk; in winter they also have a Considerable quantity of very fine wool intermixed with the hair and lying next to the Skin as the Antelope has.    the long hair which grows on the outer Side of the first joint of the hind legs, and which in the Common Deer do not usially occupy more than 2 inches in them occupy from 6 to 8; their horns also differ, those in the Common deer consist of two main beams gradually deminishing as the points proceed from it, with the mule deer the horns consist of two beams which at the distance of 4 or 6 inches from the head divide themselves into two equal branches which again either divide into two other equal branches or terminate in a Smaller, and two equal ones; haveing either 2, 4 or 6 points on a beam; the horn is not so rough about the base as the common deer, and are invariably of a much darker Colour. the most Strikeing differance of all, is the white rump and tail.    from the root of the tail as a center there is a circular Spot perfectly white of about 3½ inches radius, which occupy a part of the rump and the extremities of buttocks and joins the white of the belley underneath; the tail which is usially from 8 to 9 inches long for the first 4 or 5 inches from its upper extremity is covered with Short white hairs, much Shorter indeed than those hairs of the body; from hence for about one inch further, the hair is Still white but gradually becoms longer; the tail then termonates in a tissue of Black hair of about 3 inches long.    from this black hair of the tail they have obtained among the French engages the appelation of the black tailed Deer, but this I conceive by no means Characteristic of the Animal as much the larger portion of the tail is white.    the Ears and the tail of this Animale when Compared with those of the Common Deer, So well Comported with those of the Mule when compared with the Horse, that we have by way of distinction adapted the appellation of the mule Deer [7] which I think much more appropriate.    on the inner corner of each eye there is a drane (like the Elk) or large recepticle which Seams to Answer as a drane to the eye which givs it the appearance of weeping, this in the Common Deer of the Atlantic States is scercely proceptable but becoms more Conspicious in the fallow Deer, and Still more So in the Elk; this recepticle in the Elk is larger than any of the Pecora order [8] with which I am acquainted.

I have Some reasons to believe that the Calumet Eagle [9] is Sometimes found on this Side of the Rocky mountains from the information of the Indians in whose possession I have Seen their plumage.    those are the Same with those of the Missouri, and are the most butifull of all the family of the Eagle of America it's colours are black and white with which it is butifully varigated.    the feathers of the tail which is so highly prized by the Indians is composed of twelve broad feathers of equal length those are white except about two inches at the extremity which is of a jut black.    their wings have each a large circular white Spot in the middle when extended.    the body is variously marked with white and black.    the form is much that of the Common bald Eagle, but they are reather Smaller and much more fleet.    this Eagle is feared by all carnivarous birds, and on his approach all leave the carcase instantly on which they were feeding.    it breads in the inaccessable parts of the Mountains where it Spends the Summer, and decends to the plains and low country in the fall and winter when it is usially Sought and taken by the nativs.    two tails of this bird is esteemed by Mandans, Minnetares, Ricaras, &c. as the full value of a good horse, or Gun and accoutrements.    with the Osage & Kanzas and those nations enhabiting Countrys where this bird is more rare, the price is even double of that mentioned.    with these feathers the nativs deckerate the Stems of their Sacred pipes or Calumets; whence the name of Calumet Eagle, which has Generally obtained among the Engages. The Ricaras have domesticated this bird in many instances for the purpose of obtaining its plumage.    the nativs in every part of the Continent who can precure those feathers attach them to their own hair and the mains and tail of their favorite horses by way of orniment.    they also deckerate their own caps or bonnets with those feathers. [10] The Leather winged bat is found &c. [11]


Tuesday 11th March 1806.    a little Snow fell last night.    the morning three hunters [12] went out a hunting. Sergt. Pryor returned with a considerable quantity of Small fish and Sturgeon and a fiew wa-pa-toes &C—    4 men [13] went to look for the lost canoe but could not find it.


Tuesday 11th.    The weather was nearly the same as yesterday. Three men went across the bay in a canoe to hunt. Two hunters came in but had killed nothing. At noon, our fishermen [14] returned, with some ulken and sturgeon. The morning of the 12th was pleasant; but towards the evening the day became cloudy. Another hunter went out.


Monday March 11th    We had during last night some Snow & this morning we have fair Weather.    Serjeant Pryor & the two Men that went out with him returned with the Canoe to the fort.    They had wish them some Sturgeon & a considerable quantity of small fish.    they also brought some Wa- pa-to or bread Root &ca.    Three of our Men went out hunting.    four of our Men went also, to look for the lost Canoe.    these four Men returned but had not found it.—

1. Perhaps the Pacific red-sided garter snake; see below, March 28 and 29, 1806. Two red vertical lines go through the material about reptiles and garter snake, perhaps Biddle's work. (back)
2. Perhaps the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis. Benson (HLCE), 89; Cutright (LCPN), 288, 428–29. (back)
3. At The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon; see above, October 25, 1805. Atlas map 78. (back)
4. Perhaps Monadenia fidelis, but more likely Allogona townsendiana. Cf. Coues (HLC), 3:898 n. 104. (back)
5. The rough-skinned newt, Taricha granulosa. Benson (HLCE), 87. Cf. Burroughs, 280–81; Cutright (LCPN), 244, 429. (back)
6. Columbian black-tailed deer. The "common deer" is Odocoileus virginianus, the white-tailed deer. (back)
7. Lewis and Clark devised what remains the common name for this species; see above, May 10, 1805. (back)
8. Equivalent to present order Artiodactyla and suborder Ruminantia, including elk, deer, and moose. (back)
9. Golden eagle. (back)
10. Coues points out some inaccuracies in his description; see Coues (HLC), 3:878–79 n. 82. (back)
11. See Lewis's entry for March 12, 1806, below, for the full sentence. (back)
12. According to the captains, Drouillard, Joseph Field, and Frazer went across Youngs Bay to hunt east of Youngs River. (back)
13. Led by Gass, say the captains. (back)
14. Led by Pryor. (back)