March 14, 1806
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

March 14, 1806


This morning we sent a party after the two Elk which Collins killed last evening, they returned with them about noon. Collins, Jos. Feilds and Shannon went in quest of the flock of Elk of which Collins had killed those two.    this evening we heared upwards of twenty shot, and expect that they have fallen in with and killed a number of them. Reubin Fields and Thompson returned this evening unsuccessfull having killed one brant only.    late in the evening Drewyer arrived with a party of the Clatsops who brought an indifferent canoe some hats and roots for sale. the hats and roots we purchased, but could not obtain the canoe without giving more than our stock of merchandize would lisence us. I offered him my laced uniform coat but he would not exchange. [1] The Salmon Trout are seldom more than two feet in length they are narrow in proportion to their length, at least much more so than the Salmon or red charr.    the jaws are nearly of the same length, and are furnished with a single series of small subulate streight teeth, not so long or as large as those of the Salmon.    the mouth is wide, and the tongue is also furnished with some teeth.    the fins are placed much like those of the salmon.    at the great falls we met with this fish of a silvery white colour on the belley and sides, and a bluish light brown on the back and head. in this neighbourhood we have met with another speceis which dose not differ from the other in any particular except in point of colour.    this last is of a dark colour on the back, and it's sides and belley are yellow with transverse stripes of dark brown.    sometimes a little red is intermixed with these colours on the belley and sides towards the head.    the eye, flesh, and roes are like those discribed of the Salmon.    the white speceis which we found below the falls was in excellent order when the salmon were entirely out of season and not fit for uce.    the speceis which we found here on our arrival early in November had declined considerably, reather more so inded than the red Charr with which we found them ascociated in the little rivulets and creeks. I think it may be safely asserted that the red Charr and both speceis of the salmmon trout remain in season longer in the fall of the year than the common Salmon; but I have my doubts whether either of them ever pass the great falls of the Columbia. The Indians tell us that the Salmon begin to run early in the next month; it will be unfortunate for us if they do not, for they must form our principal dependence for food in ascending the Columbia, above the falls and it's S. E. branch to the mountains. The mountain or speckled trout are found in the waters of the Columbia within the mountains.    they are the same of those found in the upper part of the Missouri, but are not so abundant in the Columbia as on that river.    we never saw this fish below the mountains but from the transparency and coldness of the Kooskooske I should not doubt it's existing in that stream as low as it's junction with the S E. branch of the Columbia.— The bottle nose is the same with that before mentioned on the Missouri and is found exclusiely within the mountains.


This morning we dispatched a party after two Elk which Collins killed last evening, they returned with them about noon. Jos: Field, Collins, Go: Shannon & Labiesh went in quest of the Gang of Elk out of which Collins had killed the 2 yesterday.    this evening we herd upwards of twenty Shot and expect they have fallen in with and killed Several of them. Reuben Field and Thompson returned this evening unsuksessfull haveing killed only one Brant.    late in the evening Geo: Drewyer arrived with a party of the Clatsops who brought an indifferent Canoe, three hats and Some roots for Sale    we could not purchase the Canoe without giveing more than our Stock of merchandize would lisence us. Capt Lewis offered his laced uniform Coat for a verry indiferent Canoe, agreeable to their usial way of tradeing his price was double.    we are informed by the Clatsops that they have latterly Seen an Indian from the Quin-na-chart Nation [2] who reside Six days march to the N. W and that four vessels were there and the owners Mr. Haley, Moore, Callamon & Swipeton were tradeing with that noumerous nation, whale bone Oile and Skins of various discription.


Friday 14th March 1806. Cloudy.    four men went out a hunting and 7 of the party went for the Elk meat.    they soon returned with the meat of 2 doe Elk.    in the afternoon Drewyer returnd. and a number of the Clotsop Indians came with him    brought a canoe to trade to us & some Hats &C.—


Friday 14th.    We had a fine morning; and four hunters set out early. I went with a party and brought in the meat of the 2 elk which were killed last evening. Two hunters, [3] who had gone out yesterday morning returned very much fatigued, and had killed nothing but a goose and a raven which they ate last night. While out to day I saw a number of musquitoes flying about. I also saw a great quanity of sheep-sorrel [4] growing in the woods of a very large size.


Friday March 14th    This morning was Cloudy.    Seven of our party [5] went in 2 Canoes across the River, in order to bring the Elk meat to the fort, And four of our Men went out to hunt, The party that went for the Elk meat soon returned with it to the fort.    In the afternoon, the Man [6] that went to the Clatsop Village Yesterday; returned; with several Clatsop Indians to the fort.    these Indians brought a Canoe with them to trade with us.—

1. The next few lines have a red vertical line through them, perhaps Biddle's work. (back)
2. The Makah people lived in the area of Cape Flattery, Clallam County, Washington, at the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, where their reservation is now located. Lewis and Clark's name comes from their self designation in Makah, qwidiččaa·tx̣, "people of the cape" (referring to Cape Flattery). They belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan language stock, and were the only Wakashans in the present United States. Their culture was like that of the Nootka, including the hunting of whales. Hodge, 1:791–92; Spier, 28; Swanton, 427–28. For Haley, Moore, Callamon, and Swipeton, see above, November 6, 1805, January 1, February 13, 1806. (back)
3. Reubin Field and Thompson, who, according to the captains on March 13, left on the twelfth, not the thirteenth as Gass indicates. (back)
4. Gass was acquainted with the introduced European species, garden sorrel, Rumex acetosa L. Here he may be seeing either western dock, R. occidentalis Wats., or seaside dock, R. maritimus L. Hitchcock et al., Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, 2:169, 171, 173, 175, 177. (back)
5. Led by Gass, as he says. (back)