January 1, 1806
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January 1, 1806


This morning I was awoke at an early hour by the discharge of a volley    of small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters to usher in the new year; this was the only mark of rispect which we had it in our power to pay this celebrated day.    our repast of this day tho' better than that of Christmass, consisted principally in the anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day, and when the zest given by the recollection of the present, we shall completely, both mentally and corporally, enjoy the repast which the hand of civilization has prepared for us.    at present we were content with eating our boiled Elk and wappetoe, and solacing our thirst with our only beverage pure water. two of our hunters who set out this morning reterned in the evening having killed two bucks elk;    they presented Capt. Clark and myself each a marrow-bone and tonge, 〈each〉 on which we suped.    visited today by a few of the Clotsops who brought some roots and burries for the purpose of trading with us.    we were uneasy with rispect to two of our men, Willard and Wiser, who were dispatched on the 28th ulto. with the saltmakers, and were directed to return immediately; their not having returned induces us to believe it probable that they have missed their way.—    our fourtification being now completed we issued an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison. (see orderly book 1st January 1806).—

Two Swords, a Bludgeon, and a Paddle,
January 1, 1806, Codex J, p. 1
(American Philosophical Society library,
used with permission.)


This morning proved cloudy with moderate rain, after a pleasent worm night during which there fell but little rain—    This morning at Day we wer Saluted from the party without, wishing us a "Hapy new year" a Shout and discharge of their arms—    no Indians to be Seen this morning—    they left the place of their encampment dureing the last night— The work of our houses and fort being now Complete, we Ishued an order in which we pointed out the rules & regulations for the government of the Party in respect to the Indians as also for the Safty and protection of our Selves &c.

two Clotsops Came with a mat and Some fiew roots of Cut wha mo, for which they asked a file    they did not trade but Continued all night

Sent out 2 hunters this morning who returned, haveing killed 2 Elk about 3 miles distant, Some fiew Showers or rain in the Course of this day.    Cloudy all the day.


This morning I was awoke at an early our by the discharge of a Volley of Small arms, which were fired by our party in front of our quarters to usher in the new year, this was the only mark of respect which we had it in our power to pay this Selibrated day.    our repast of this day tho' better than that of Christmas Consisted principally in the anticipation of the 1st day of January 1807, when in the bosom of our friends we hope to participate in the mirth and hilarity of the day, and when with the relish given by the recollection of the present, we Shall Completely, both mentally and Corparally, the repast which the hand of Civilization has produced for us.    at present we were Content with eating our boiled Elk and Wap-pato, and Solacing our thirst with our only beverage pure water.    two of our hunters who Set out this morning returned in the evening haveing killed two Bucks Elks; they presented Capt. Lewis and my Self each a marrow bone and tongue on which we Suped—    we are visited to day by a fiew of the Clatsops by water    they brought some roots and berries for the purpose of tradeing with us.    our fortification being now Complete we issue an order for the more exact and uniform dicipline and government of the garrison.    (See orderly book Jany 2d 1806) [3]


A List of the Tribes near the mouth of the Columbia river as given by the Indians, the Places they reside, the names of the Tribes and principal Chiefs of each all of which speak the same language [5]

1st Clot-sop Tribe in Several Small villages on the Sea Cost to the S. E. of the Mouth & on the S. E. bank of the Columbia river—not noumerous

1st Chief Con-ni a    Co-mo-wool
2      do Sha-no-ma
3      do War-ho-lote

2nd Chin-nook Tribe reside opposit on the N. W. Side & in Small villages & Single houses made of Split boards on a Creek of Haleys bay, and on Small lakes or ponds, at no great distance from the river or bay.    Tolerably noumerous—so said


1st Chief is Stock-home
2d     do Com-com-mo-ley
3       do Shi-lar-la-wit
4       do Nor-car-te
5       do Chin-ni-ni

3rd Chiltch Tribe reside 〈on〉 near the sea Coast & north of the Chinnooks    live in houses and is said to be noumerous    Speak same Language

1st Chief Mar-lock-ke
2d    do Col-chote
3rd   do Ci-in-twar

4th Ca-la-mox Tribe reside on the Sea coast to the S. E of the Columbia River and on a Small river, [6] and as I am informed by the Clot-sops inhabit 10 Villages 6 of them on the ocian & 4 on the Little river, those Ca-la-mmox are said not to be noumerous    Speake the Clotsop language

1st Chief O-co-no

5th Calt-har-mar Tribe reside in one village of large Houses built of Split boards and neetly made, on the S. E. Side of the Columbia River, behind a Island in a Deep bend of the River to the S. E.    they are not noumerous, and live as the others do on fish, black roots Lickuerish berries, and Wap-pe-to roots, and is as low as those Wapeto roots grow, which is about 15 miles on a Direct line from the Sea.

1st Chief Clan-nah queh at war against the
   Snake Inds. to the S of the falls
2d     do       Cul-te-ell
3       do       [blank] at war    Do.

6th Clan-nah queh Nation [7]    This nation reside on [blank] Side of the Columbia River in [blank] villages above about [blank] and are 〈said to be〉 noumerous    they latterly 〈resided〉 floged the Chinnooks, and are a Dasterly Set

1st and Great Chief Qui oo

7th 〈Scum as qua up War-ci-a-cum Tribe reside on the N W. Side of the Columbia in the great bend behind Some Islands    this tribe is not noumerous    reside in 2 village of Houses

The Chief Scum ar-qua-up

A List of the names of Sundery persons, who visit this part of the Coast for the purpose of trade &c. &c. in large Vestles; all of which Speake the English language &c.—as the Indians inform us

Moore [9] ☞    Visit them in a large 4 masted Ship, they expect
him in 2 moons to trade.—
1 Eyd. Skellie ☞    in a large Shit, long time gorn.—
Youin [10] ☞ In a large Ship, and they expect him in 1 moon to
trade with them.—
Swepeton ☞    In a large Ship, and they expect him in 3 month back to
Mackey [11] ☞    In a Ship, they expect him back in 1 or 2 moons to
trade with them.—
Meship [12] ☞    In a Ship, the[y] expect him 2 moons to trade.—
Jackson ☞    Visit them in a Ship and they expect him back in 3
months to trade.—
Balch [13] ☞    In a Ship and they expect him in 3 months to
Mr. Haley [14] Visits them in a Ship & they expect him back to trade
with them in 3 moons to trade—    he is the favourite
of the Indians (from the number of Presents he givs)
and has the trade principaly with all the tribes.—
Washilton [15] In a Skooner, they expect him in 3 months to return
and trade with them—    a favourite.—
Lemon In a Slupe, and they expect him in 3 moons to trade
with them.—
Davidson [16] Visits this part of the Coast and river in a Brig for the
purpose of Hunting the Elk    returns when he pleases
he does not trade any, Kills a great maney Elk &c &—.
Washilgton Fallawan [17] In a Ship with guns    he fired on & killed Several In-
dians, he does not trade now and they doe not know
when he will return, well done

A List of the Names as given by the Indias of the Traders Names and the quallity of their Vessels which they Say visit the mouth of the Columbia 2 [times] a year for the purpose of Tradeing with the nativs, and from their accounts Spring and autum—

Mr. Haley their favourite Trade visits them in a 3 masted vessel
Youens visits in a 3 Masted vessle—
Tallamon   do         3         do       no trade
Swipton   do         3         do       Trader
Moore   do         4         do          do
Mackey   do         3         do          do
Washington   do         3         do          do
Meship   do         3         do          do
Davidson   do         2         do       Hunts Elk
Jackson   do         3         do       Trader
Bolch   do         3         do          do
Skelley has been along time gorn— one Eye
Callallamet   do         3                     Trader has a wooden Leg.

The fort being now completed, the Commanding officers think proper to direct: that the guard shall as usual consist of one Sergeant and three privates, and that the same be regularly relieved each morning at sunrise.    The post of the new guard shall be in the room of the Sergeants rispectivly commanding the same.    the centinel shall be posted, both day and night, on the parade in front of the commanding offercers quarters; tho' should he at any time think proper to remove himself to any other part of the fort, in order the better to inform himself of the desighns or approach of any party of savages, he is not only at liberty, but is hereby required to do so.    It shall be the duty of the centinel also to announce the arrival of all parties of Indians to the Sergeant of the Guard, who shall immediately report the same to the Commanding officers.

The Commanding Officers require and charge the Garrison to treat the natives in a friendly manner; nor will they be permitted at any time, to abuse, assault or strike them; unless such abuse assault or stroke be first given by the natives.    nevertheless it shall be right for any individual, in a peaceable manner, to refuse admittance to, or put out of his room, any native who may become troublesome to him; and should such native refuse to go when requested, or attempt to enter their rooms after being forbidden to do so; it shall be the duty of the Sergeant of the guard on information of the same, to put such native out of the fort and see that he is not again admitted during that day unless specially permitted; and the Sergeant of the guard may for this purpose imploy such coercive measures (not extending to the taking of life) as shall at his discretion be deemed necessary to effect the same.

When any native shall be detected in theft, the Sergt. of the guard shall immediately inform the Commanding offercers of the same, to the end that such measures may be pursued with rispect to the culprit as they shall think most expedient.

At sunset on each day, the Sergt. attended by the interpreter Charbono and two of his guard, will collect and put out of the fort, all Indians except such as may specially be permitted to remain by the Commanding offercers, nor shall they be again admitted untill the main gate be opened the ensuing morning.

At Sunset, or immediately after the Indians have been dismissed, both gates shall be shut, and secured, and the main gate locked and continue so untill sunrise the next morning: the water-gate may be used freely by the Garrison for the purpose of passing and repassing at all times, tho' from sunset, untill sunrise, it shall be the duty of the centinel, to open the gate for, and shut it after all persons passing and repassing, suffering the same never to remain unfixed long than is absolutely necessary.

It shall be the duty of the Sergt. of the guard to keep the kee of the Meat house, and to cause the guard to keep regular fires therein when the same may be necessary; and also once at least in 24 hours to visit the canoes and see that they are safely secured; and shall further on each morning after he is relieved, make his report verbally to the Commandg officers.—

Each of the old guard will every morning after being relieved furnish two loads of wood 〈each〉 for the commanding offercers fire.

No man is to be particularly exempt from the duty of bringing meat from the woods, nor none except the Cooks and Interpreters from that of mounting guard.

Each mess being furnished with an ax, they are directed to deposit in the room of the commanding offercers all other public tools of which they are possessed; nor 〈are〉 shall the same at any time hereafter be taken from the said deposit without the knowledge and permission of the commanding officers; and any individual so borrowing the tools are strictly required to bring the same back the moment he has ceased to use them, and no case shall they be permited to keep them out all night.

Any individual selling or disposing of any tool or iron or steel instrument, arms, accoutrements or ammunicion, shall be deemed guilty of a breach of this order, and shall be tryed and punished accordingly.— the tools loaned to John Shields are excepted from the restrictions of this order.

Meriwether Lewis
Capt. 1st U. S. Regt.
Wm. Clark Capt. &c


Wednesday 1st Jany. 1806—    The party Saluted our officers at day break this morning by firing at their quarters as a remembrence of the new year    a pleasant morning.    2 men went out a hunting. Several of the natives [19] visited us.    they go bare leged all winter and bare footed    Some kind of a little Robe over their Shoulders &C.    the women have Short peticoats made of Some kind of grass Some of which are twisted like twine, and are nearly naked otherways    the general part of them are verry poor and ask a large price for any thing they have to part with.    in the evening the two hunters returned & had killed two large buck Elk.—


Wednesday 1st Jan. 1806.    The year commenced with a wet day; but the weather still continues warm; and the ticks, [20] flies [21] and other insects are in abundance, which appears to us very extraordinary at this season of the year, in a latitude so far north. Two hunters went out this morning. We gave our Fortification the name of Fort Clatsop. In the evening our two hunters, that went out this morning, returned and had killed two large elk about three miles from the Fort.


Wednesday January 1st    At day break, the Men at the fort fired several Guns, as a salute to our Commanding officers; & in honor of the day.    The Morning was pleasant.    Two of our party were sent out to hunt.    Several Indians [22] came to the fort on a visit.    They were entirely naked, excepting a breech Cloth which they wore & Skins thrown over their Shoulders.    This is the manner which the Natives in general go cloathed.    The Winters here are not very Cold, & the ground has not as yet been cover'd with Snow this Winter.    In the afternoon the hunters returned to the Fort, they had killed 2 large Buck Elks 〈bucks〉

1. Here begins Lewis's notebook Codex J; on p. 1 before this date are sketches of various Indian implements with captions, p. 2 is blank, then follows the January 1 entry on p. 3. This journal runs to March 20, 1806, covering most of the period at Fort Clatsop, and is one of the richest in natural history and ethnographical data. Clark's Codex I from this point copies Lewis almost verbatim, though not always under the same date. See the Introduction and Appendix C. (back)
2. Clark has additional short entries for January 1, 2, and 3, 1806, in Codex I, pp. 145–46, reading backwards, and following the final entry of January 29. These were probably first drafts before he gave up keeping this journal until some time later when he took up copying Lewis. See the Introduction and Appendix C, and note at January 29, 1806. (back)
3. There is no entry in the Orderly Book for January 2. The last entry in the notebook is on January 1 (see below) and deals with the matters mentioned here. It was apparently Biddle who underlined this passage in red ink. (back)
4. This undated list is found in the Elkskin-bound Journal between the entries of December 7–8, 1805. Since it is more in the nature of the list of trading captains which follows it in the field book and here, and since that item is dated January 1, 1806, we have placed this tribal material here. (back)
5. After this paragraph are the following numbers, written upside down.

Some of these Indians' names may be identified linguistically (all are in the Chinook language):

6. The Necanicum River in southwest Clatsop County, Oregon, "〈Kilamox River〉" and "Clatsop River" on Atlas map 84. (back)
7. The identity of the Claxter Indians, or more commonly Claxstar, is not completely clear. They are generally considered to have been the Athapascan-speaking Clatskanies. Berreman, 17; Hajda, 106–7, 113–14. In fact, the name may not refer to a tribal designation at all but to the Chinookan term [t]ła'aqštaq, which means "round heads," and which is a derisive term applied to slaves and others who were not permitted to deform their heads in the Chinookan manner. Lewis and Clark seemed to have misconstrued the word as a village or tribal name here and as a personal namke for a Cathlamet chief at another place in this entry. (back)
8. This list of trading captains and their ships in the Elkskin-bound Journal appears between the entries of December 7 and 8 and is placed by date. The following less detailed list appears in Codex I, p. 156, reading backwards, and is brought together with the other. The list from Codex I is nearly identical to one by Lewis on March 16, 1806. (See note at January 29, 1806.) Both lists here are in Clark's hand. Obviously the captains gathered this information from the Indians at the mouth of the Columbia. We have made an attempt to identify these men from what information is available about early trading ventures in the area. Lewis and Clark evidently understood that these skippers had been at the mouth of the Columbia recently, which is not the case, so far as the record shows, with some of the men referred to in these notes. Some of them may have made other voyages which are not in the records, or the language barrier may have confused the information, although many of the Indians had some English. The principal source is the researches of Frederick W. Howay. (back)
9. Captain Hugh Moore of the British barque Phoenix, out of Bengal, was on the Northwest Coast in 1792 and 1794. He was an exceedingly mysterious character, and may have continued in the trade. See also below, February 13, 1806. Ruby & Brown (CITC), 66, 107; Howay (1930), 120–21, 127, 133. (back)
10. In 1792 Vancouver encountered a number of ships trading on the coast, among them the British schooner Prince William Henry. Her captain was Ewens, or Ewen, described as a master in the British navy, presumably not in service in peacetime. He may have returned to the coast on unrecorded occasions. Menzies, 124–25, 129; Howay (1930), 127. (back)
11. Vancouver also encountered the American ship Margaret, out of Boston, commanded by McGee, or Magee. Menzies, 124–25; Howay (1930), 127. (back)
12. Captain Charles Winship's brigantine Betsy, of Boston, was on the Northwest Coast in 1800. Since Winship was arrested by the Spanish in San Diego and died in Mexico that same year, he could not have been one of the traders who reguarly returned to the Columbia; there may have been a language problem at this point. However, there were several Winships engaged in the trade. Jonathan Winship, one of the owners of the ship O'Cain, of New York, was on board during her trading and sea otter hunting ventures, ranging from California to Alaska, in 1803–4. He very likely conducted trading operations, rather than Captain Joseph O'Cain. Howay (1931), 133, 147, 149; Howay (1932), 54. (back)
13. Perhaps Captain William Bowles of the ship Mary, of Boston, who was trading on the coast in 1802–3. Howay (1931), 146–67. (back)
14. For Haley, see above, November 6, 1805. (back)
15. The Indians seem to have remembered the names of captains, not of ships. However, the Lady Washington, of Boston, a small sloop of ninety tons, was a companion of Robert Gray's Columbia Rediviva (and for a time commanded by Gray) and was on the coast in 1788, 1789, 1791, and 1792. Why Gray's name was never mentioned to Lewis and Clark is impossible to say. Howay (1930), 117–19, 122; Menzies, 125. (back)
16. The only Davidson known to have been in the Northwest Coast trade was the commander of the schooner Rover of Boston, which sailed for the coast in 1799 and is thought to have been lost at sea, perhaps in June 1801. He could not have been returning regularly to the Columbia, but here again there may have been a language problem. Howay (1931), 134. (back)
17. Probably the "Tallamon" of the second list. He could be the "Callamon" later reported trading with the Makah at Cape Flattery (see below, March 14, 1806); if so, the latter would not be the wooden-legged "Callalamet." (back)
18. The last detachment order in the Orderly Book. (back)
19. Clatsop Indians, according to Lewis and Clark. (back)
20. Perhaps the Rocky Mountain woodtick, Dermacentor andersoni, or the unnamed tick, Ixodes pacificus. (back)
21. Perhaps including crane flies, family Tipulidae. (back)
22. Clatsop Indians, say Lewis and Clark. (back)