July 30, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

July 30, 1804


July the 30th Monday    Set out early & proceeded on Westmes. passd. one pt. to the L. S and one to the S. S. to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. which is on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a prarie covered with high grass Plumbs Grape Vine & Hezel—both forming a Bluff to the River, the Lower Prarie is above high water mark at the foot of the riseing ground & below the High Bluff    we came to in a grove of timber and formed a Camp [2]    raised a flag Pole, and deturmind to waite for the Ottu Indians—    The white Horse which 〈I〉 we found below Died last night, after posting out the Guards &c. & Sent out 4 men to hunt    I am ingaged in [blank] and Drawing off my courses to accompany the map Drawn at White Catfish Camp, Capt. Lewis and my Self walked in the Prarie on the top of the Bluff and observed the most butifull prospects imagionable, this Prarie is Covered with grass about 10 or 12 Inch high, (Land rich)    rises about ½ a mile back Something higher and is a Plain as fur as Can be Seen, under those high Lands next the river is butifull Bottom interspersed with Groves of timber, the River may be Seen for a great Distance both above & below meandering thro: the plains between two ranges of High land which appear to be from 4 to 20 ms. apart, each bend of the river forming a point which Contains tall timber, principally Willow Cotton wood some Mulberry elm Sycamore & ash.    the groves Contain walnit coffeenut [3] & Oake in addition & Hickory & Lynn [linden] [4]    Jo. Fields Killed Brarow or as the Ponie [Pawnee] call it Cho car tooch, [5] this animale burrows in the ground & feeds on Bugs and flesh principally the little Dogs of the Prarie, also Something of Vegetable Kind    his Shape & Size is like that of a Beever, his head Mouth &c. is like a Dog with its ears Cut off, his tale and hair like that of a Ground hog    Something longer and lighter, his interals like a Hogs, his Skin thick & loose, white & hair Short under its belly, of the Species of the Bear, and it has a white Streake from its nose to its Sholders, the Toe nails of its fore feet which is large is 1 Inch and ¾ qtr. long and those of his hind feet which is much Smaller is ¾ long. We have this animale Skined and Stuffed. Short legs, raseing himself just above the ground when in motion    Jo & R. fields Killed Som Deer at a Distance and Came in for a horse to bring them in, they have not returned this evening, a gred number of Swans in a pond above L. S. 〈N. W. from    our opposit〉 to our Camp.    Serjt. Floyd verry unwell a bad Cold &c. [6]    Several men with Boils, great qts. of Catfish    G. D. [George Drouillard] Cought one Small Beever alive. Some Turkey & Gees Killed to day.    arms & all things in order.    a fair evining, and Cool.


Set out this morning early    proceeded on to a Clear open Prarie on the L. S. on a rise of about 70 feet higher than the bottom which is also a Prarie both forming Bluffs to the river of High Grass & Plumb bush Grapes &c. and Situated above high water is a Small Grove of timber at the foot of the Riseing Ground between those two priraries, and below the Bluffs of the high Prarie we Came too and formed a Camp, intending to waite the return of the french man & Indians—    the white horse which we found near the Kanzeis River, Died Last night

Course Distanc &c. July 30th
S. 82° W. 2 Mes. to a point of wood on the L. S. above a pt.
on the L. S. and opsd. one on S. S.
West 1 ¼ ms. to the lower part of a Bluff & High Prarie
on L. S.    came too.
  3 ¾  

posted out our guard and Sent out 4 men, Captn. Lewis & went up the Bank and walked a Short Distance in the high Prarie.    this Prarie is Covered with Grass of 10 or 12 inches in hight. Soil of good quallity &, Still further back at the Distance of about a mile the Countrey rises about 80 or 90 feet higher, and is one Continual Plain as fur as Can be Seen, from the Bluff on the 2d rise imediately above our Camp the most butifull prospect of the River up & Down and the Countrey opsd. prosented it Self which I ever beheld; The River meandering the open and butifull Plains, interspursed with Groves of timber, and each point Covered with Tall timber, Such as willow Cotton Sun [NB: Some] Mulberry, Elm, Sucamore, Lynn & ash (The Groves Contain Hickory, Walnut, Coffeenut & Oake in addition)—

Two ranges of High Land parrelel to each other and from 4 to 10 miles Distant between which the river & its bottoms are Contains. (from 70 to 300 feet high)

Joseph Fields Killed and brought in an Anamale Called by the French Brárow, and by the Ponies Cho car tooch    this Anamale Burrows in the Ground and feeds on Flesh, (Prarie Dogs), Bugs, & vigatables—    "His Shape & Size is like that of a Beaver, his head mouth &c. is like a Dogs with Short Ears, his Tail and Hair like that of a Ground Hog, and longer, and lighter.    his Interals like the interals of a Hog,["]

his Skin thick and loose, his Belly is White and the Hair Short—    a white Streek from his nose to this Sholders.

The toe nails of his fore feet is one Inch & ¾ long, & feet large; the nails of his hind feet ¾ of an Inch long, the hind feet Small and toes Crooked, his legs are Short and when he Moves Just Suffcent to raise his body above the Ground 〈he〉    He is of the Bear Species.    we hav his Skin Stuffed—

Jo. & R. Fields did not return this evening, Several men with Verry bad Boils—    Cat fish is Cought in any part of the river    Turkeys Gees & a Beaver Killed & Cought    every thing in prime order    men in high Spirits.    a fair Still evening    Great no. misquitors this evening


this day Joseph Fields killed a Braro [EC: Bader Taxidea americana] as it is called by the French engáges.    this is a singular anamal not common to any part of the United States.    it's weight is sixteen pounds.—    it is a carniverous anamal.    on both 〈of the〉 sides of the upper jaw is fexed 〈two〉 one long and sharp canine tooth.—    it's eye are small black and piercing.


Monday July 30th 1804.    we Set out very eairly this morning in order to find a Good place to Camp & wait for the Zottaus Indians; to come in &C    we proceded on passd. where G. Drewyer camped last night. The white Horse dyed last night.    fell down the Bank being weak by gitting filled with water Swimming the Missouri on 28th ult.—    G. Drewyer killed one Deer.—    we proceded on past a high bank & bottom prarie.    arived at high blufs on S. S.    we camped about 7 oClock close under the foot of the bluffs in a Strip of woods which make along under the Ridge to the River    the Timber is coffee nut white oak Black walnut Elm bass wood or lynn hickery &C—    below this handsome bottom prarie, above the Timber and bluffs is a beautiful high prarie, I think it is the Smothest, & prittyset place for a Town I ever Saw.    back of this high Large prarie, their is uneven praris Some Timber in the vallies & on the branches &C—    Jo. Fields & Reuben went hunting    Jo killed & brought in an animel which the French call a brarow [8]    (we hoisted the american Flag &C—    expect the Zottous &c—[)] 〈after which we name this place Camp Brarow[9]    this animal Resembles our Ground hogs in colour & Shape—nearly but the head like a dogs.    four feet like a bear especially the claws. Inside like a hog    long teeth.    they live on flyes &bugs &.C. and dig in the Ground like a G. Hog    they Say they growl like a possom, Capt. Lewis had this animal Skined the Skin Stuffed in order to Send back to St. Louis; the 2 hunters killed 3 deer    took out the horses to bring them in. This place is named Counsel Bluffs. Latd. 41° 17m 00 North—


monday July 30th    Set out verry erley this morning    Cam 3 miles    Sopt for the man whome we Had Sent with the Indian yesterday    He has not Returnd Yet    〈Campt〉    Sent 2 men out Hunting    Did not Return Last night    Campt on the South Side at prarie


Monday 30th.    Our grey horse died last night. [10] We set out early, and the hunters [11] met us with a deer. At 9 we came to some timber land at the foot of a high bluff and encamped there in order to wait for the Indians. At the top of the bluff is a large handsome prairie, and a large pond, or small lake about two miles from camp on the south side of the river. Two of our hunters went out and killed an animal, [12] called a prarow, about the size of a ground hog and nearly of the same colour. It has a head similar to that of a dog, short legs and large claws on its fore feet; some of the claws are an inch and an half long. Our hunters [13] again went out, but did not return this day.


Mondy July 30th    Sat out at an Early hour to find a place of Incampment to wait for le barty & the Zottoe Indians to form A Treaty with them    Come to a place of Incampt. about Eigh Oclock On the W. S. in a piece of woods Cloase to a high Bank whare No. 2 walkd. On; from Surface of the water it is neerly 100 feet in hight.    Roed 4 Miles & haltd there

Monday July 30th    We set out at an early hour, in order to find a place in order to form our encampment; and to waite for the Frenchman, (Liberty) and the Zoto Indian who we had sent to the Zoto nation returning.    about 8 o'Clock A. M. we came too, on the So West side of the River, close to a high bank, where some of our Men went on Shore, this place; was cover'd with woods,

We measur'd the heighth, of the bank from the surface of the water, which was 100 feet high.—    One of our hunters brought in an animal which he had shot, which the Canadians, who were with us called a Brareowe, this animal was formed like a dog, of a Grey colour, the nails on his fore feet being 1½ Inches long, his head long and pecked [14] none of the party but this Canadian had never seen such an animal before, and it was a novelty among us, we encamped at this place having come 4 Miles this day.—

1. Biddle's notation at the head of this sheet of the Field Notes (document 38) reads "July 30 to Aug. 1st." (back)
2. In Washington County, Nebraska, near the present town of Fort Calhoun, about fifteen miles north of Omaha. This bluff became known as the Council Bluff (or, with adjacent bluffs, as the Council Bluffs) from the meeting the captains held there with the Indians during the next few days. The city of Council Bluffs, Iowa, although it is downstream and on the opposite bank, takes its name from these bluffs. The camp was in the river bottom immediately below the bluffs; the river, which now runs well to the east of the bluffs, then came nearly to their foot at this point. The bluffs today are the site of Fort Atkinson State Historical Park . Atlas map 13; Nicollet (MMR), 387; MRC map 24; MRR map 67; Appleman (LC), 336–37. (back)
3. Kentucky coffee tree, Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch Barkley, 157; Gilmore, 37. (back)
4. This description of Lewis and Clark's Council Bluff and neighboring bluffs typifies the central Missouri River vegetation and the topography of the bluff forests and upland prairies. The entry accurately lists the original trees that occupied the elevations above the river. The trees typical of the floodplain are distinguished from those of the first and second bluffs, and the species listed provide an early comparison with the current vegetation. Weaver, 37–54; Aikman, 38, 59. (back)
5. The badger was probably the first zoological specimen preserved by Lewis on the expedition. Lewis skinned and stuffed it to send back to Jefferson. In early 1806 the president noted the specimen, saying that the species was "not before known out of Europe," although in fact, the animal had been described from Canadian specimens in 1778. Clark noted one killed at River Dubois on February 6, 1804, with no indication that it was new to him. Lewis gives a more detailed and scientific description on February 26, 1806. "Brarow" is from the French blaireau and the Pawnee word is cuhkatus. Jefferson to C. F. C. Volney, February 11, 1806, Jackson (LLC), 1:291; Cutright (LCPN), 70. See Lewis's zoological note this same day. The "little Dogs of the Prarie" and "prairie Dogs" are prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus. (back)
6. The first indication in the journals of the illness that would result in Floyd's death in less than a month. (back)
7. Here begin Lewis's natural history notes as entered in Codex Q (see Appendix C). These notes, written irregularly until December 1805 in this notebook, are normally placed after the regular daily entries in this edition. Occasionally there are exchanges among journalists and between this journal and regular journals, but it is unclear which journalist is the original writer or into which notebook the records went first. Elliott Coues has randomly added scientific names for species on the pages here placed convenient to the subject and identified as his emendations. See above, n. 5, for the badger. (back)
8. A badger, Taxidea taxus, the French word being blaireau. The groundhog used for comparison is the woodchuck, Marmota monax. (back)
9. Ordway and Whitehouse note what may have been the initial name for the party's Council Bluff. It is in Washington County, Nebraska, near the town of Fort Calhoun and within Fort Atkinson State Historical Park . (back)
10. The horse found running loose on July 3. (back)
12. Badger, Taxidea taxus; see Clark's entry for this day. Gass's "prarow" is his attempt at the French term for the animal, blaireau. Joseph Field was one of the hunters. (back)
13. The Field brothers. (back)
14. Perhaps "peaked" is meant. (back)