June 6, 1806
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June 6, 1806


This morning Frazier returned having been in quest of some roots and bread which had left at the lodg of the Twisted hair when on his way to the fishery on Lewis's river.    the Twisted hair came with him but I was unable to converse with him for the want of an interpreter, Drewyer being absent with Capt. C. This Cheif left me in the evening and returned to his village. Capt C. Visited the Broken Arm today agreeably to his promise; he took with him Drewyer and several others.    they were received in a friendly manner. The Broken Arm informed Capt C. that the nation would not pass the mountain untill the latter end of the summer, and that with rispect to the young men whom we had requested should accompany us to the falls of the Missouri, were not yet scelected for that purpose nor could they be so untill there was a meeting of the nation in counsil.    that this would happen in the course of ten or twelve days as the whole of the lodges were about to remove to the head of the Commeâp Creek in the plain near Lewis's river, [1] that when they had assembled themselves they would hold a council and scelect the young men.    that if we set out previously to that period the men would follow us.    we therefore do not calculate on any assistance from them as guides, but depend more upon engageing some of the Ootlashshoots in the neighborhood of Travellers rest C. for that purpose. The broken arm gave Capt. C. a few dryed Quawmas roots as a great present, but in our estimation those of cows are much better, I am confident they are much more healthy. The men who were with Capt. C. obtained a good store of roots and bread in exchange for a number of little notions, using the Yanke phrase, with which their own enginuity had principally furnished them.    on examination we find that our whole party have an ample store of bread and roots for our voyage, a circumstance not unpleasing. They retuned at 5 P. M. shortly after which we were visited by Hohâstillpilp the two young Cheifs who gave us the horses in behalf of the nation some time since and several others, who remained all night. The Kooskooske is about 150 Yds. wide at this place and discharges a vast body of water; notwithstanding it high state the water remains nearly transparent, and it's temperature appeas to be quite as cold as that of our best springs.    we meet with a beautifull little bird [2] [EC: Piranga ludoviciana] in this neighbourhood about the size and somewhat the shape of the large sparrow.    it is reather longer in proportion to it's bulk than the sparrow.    it measures 7 inches from the extremity of the beek to that of the tail, the latter occupying 2½ inches.    the beak is reather more than half an inch in length, and is formed much like the virginia nitingale; [3] it is thick and large for a bird of it's size; wide at the base, both chaps convex, and pointed, the uper exceeds the under chap a little 〈and a〉 is somewhat curved and of a brown colour; the lower chap of a greenish yellow.    the eye full reather large and of a black colour both puple and iris.    the plumage is remarkably delicate; that of the neck and head is of a fine orrange yellow and red, the latter predominates on the top of the head and arround the base of the beak from whence it graduly deminishes & towards the lower part of the neck, the orrange yellow prevails most; the red has the appearance of being laid over a ground of yellow.    the breast, the sides, rump and some long feathers which lie between the legs and extend underneath the tail are of a fine orrange yellow.    the tail, back and wings are black, ecept a small stripe of yellow on the outer part of the middle joint of the wing, ¼ of an inch wide and an inch in length.    the tail is composed of twelve feathers of which those in the center are reather shortest, and the plumage of all the feathers of the tail is longest on that side of the quill next the center of the tail.    the legs and feet are black, nails long and sharp; it has four toes on each foot, of which three are forward and one behind; that behind is as long as the two outer of the three toes in front.

Observed equal altitudes of the sun with Sextant.

  h m s     h m s    
A. M. 1 55   4.5   P.M. 10 17 43 } Altitude 64° 42' 30"
  " 66 30     " 19 12
  " 57 57     " 20 40

Chronometer too slow on M. T.— [blank]


I visited the Broken Arm to day agreeable to my promis of the 4th inst. and took with me Drewyer & three other men I was receved in the friendly manner. The broken Arm informed me that maney of the Small chiefs of the different Bands of his nation had not heard our word from our own mouths, Several of them were present and was glad to See me &c. I repeeted in part what had been Said in Council before. The Broken arm told me that the nation would not pass the mountains untill the latter part of the Summer, and with respect to the young men who we had requested to accompany us to the falls of Missouri, were not yet Selected for that purpose nor could they be So untill they had a Meeting of the Nation in Council.    that this would happen in the Course of ten or 12 days as the whole of the Lodges were about to Move to the head of Commeâp Creek in the Plain of Lewis's river, that when they held a council they would Select two young men.    that if we Set out previously to that time the men would follow us.    we therefore do not Calculate any assistance from them as guides, but depend more upon engageing Some of the Oatlash-shoots on Clarks river in the neighbouringhood of Travellers rest C. for that purpose. The Broken Arm gave me a fiew Quawmash roots as a great preasent, but in my estimation those of Cows is much better. I am Confident they are much more healthy. The Broken Arm informed me that they had latterly been informed that a party of the Shoshones had arived at the Ye-E-al-po Nation who reside to the South of the enterance of Kooskooske into Lewis's river. [5]    and had informed that people that their nation (the Shoshones) had received the talk which was given their relations on the head of the East fork of Lewis's river last fall, and were resolved to pursue our Councils, and had came foward for the purpose of makeing peace with them, and allso with the Chopunnish &c.    that they had Sent Several men in Serch of those people with a view to bring them to Lewis's river at which place the Broken Arm informed me he Should meet them and Smoke the pipe of peace.    which he Should afterwards Send by with Some of his Chiefs in company with those Shoshones to their nation and confirm a piece which never Should be broken on his part.    he produced two pipes one of which he said was as a present to me the other he intended to Send to the Shoshones &c. and requested me to take one, I receved the one made in the fascion of the Country, the other which was of Stone curiously inlaid with Silver in the common form which he got from the Shoshones. [6] I deckorated the Stem of this pipe with blue ribon and white wampom and informed the Chief this was the emblem of peace with us.

The men who accompanied me obtained a good Store of roots and bread in exchange for a number of little notions, useing the Yanke phrase, with which their own enginuiety had principally furnished them.    on examonation we find our whole party have a Sufficient Store of bread and roots for our Voyage.    a Circumstance not unpleasing—.

I returned at 4 P. M followed by Hohâstillpilp the 2 young Chiefs who gave us the horses in behalf of the nation Some time Sence, the young man who gave us the horse at Collins Creek to kill as we Came up, and Several others. I met the twisted hair and two other indians with Frazier on the opposit bank from our Camp this Morning & Sent him over to our Camp. I met him this evening on his return home.    he informed me he could not accompany us across the mountains as his brother was Sick &c.—.



Friday 6th June 1806.    a fair morning. Capt Clark and five men [8] went across the river to Some villages.    one of the party [9] who Stayed at the commeap village last night riturnd    informed us that 5 of the Sho-Sho-nee of Snake nation had come to make peace or treaty with this nation [10]    towards evening Capt Clark & party returned    the young chief [11] who gave us Several horses and Several more of the natives of his village accompanyd them &C.


Friday 6th.    The morning was pleasant, and Capt. Clarke and five of the party [12] went over the river to buy some roots at the villages, and in the evening returned with a good supply, accompanied by some of the natives.

1. Near the head of Lawyer Creek, in Lewis County, Idaho. (back)
2. The first description of the western tanager, Piranga ludoviciana [AOU, 607]. Coues called the description "clear and unmistakable." Coues (HLC), 3:1035–36 n. 26; Cutright (LCPN), 296, 306, 384–87, 437; Holmgren, 31. A red vertical line runs through this descriptive material to about "the eye full," perhaps done by Biddle. (back)
3. Northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis [AOU, 593]; see also June 4, 1804. Holmgren, 32. (back)
4. This entry ends the daily journal material in Voorhis No. 3. The remaining material is written from the back in reverse order to the rest of the journal. It includes weather data for April and May 1806, which is placed in the appropriate location; a map dated April 18, 1806, which is placed with its textual reference at April 20 (see fig. 11); and a list of Nez Perce terms (see notes below). (back)
5. The Cayuse people, who called themselves Waiilatpus, and who lived in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington, west of the Nez Perce homeland. Clark's term is Shahaptian weyí·letpu·, being the designation for this group; Lewis gives it as "Y-e-let-pos" on June 8. Their language, Waiilatpuan, was distantly related to the Shahaptian of Nez Perces, and the two tribes associated and intermarried to a great extent. Hodge, 1:224–25; Ruby & Brown (CIIT). (back)
6. The wording is ambiguous, but the pipe "in the common form" may have been one with the bowl at right angles to the stem, while the one "in the fashion of the country" may have been one with the bowl at the end of the stem, as they had observed among the Shoshones (see August 13, 1805, and fig. 1 there). Perhaps, however, the silver inlay was the "common form" referred to. (back)
7. The following is a list found on the back flyleaf of Clark's Voorhis No. 3 journal. It is undated, so is placed here with the nearest regularly dated daily entry. It is mainly a list of Nez Perce terms for major tributaries of the Missouri River, going downstream. It indicates the extent of Nez Perce knowledge of the country east of the Rockies, either from Crow informants or from trips as far as the Mandan-Hidatsa villages, perhaps in company with Crows.
Up-shar-look-kar, Crow Indians Rockejhone, French for Yellowstone
Sin-sho-cal, Dearborn River Koos-koos-an-nim-a, Little Missouri River
Cal la mar-Sha mosh, Sun River Walch-Nim-mah, Knife River
Co-ma win-nim, Marias River Ni-hi-Sir-te, perhaps Heart River or Cannon-
Ta-ki-á-ki-á, Musselshell River ball River (see below)
Wah-wo-ko-ye-o-cose, perhaps  
Yellowstone River  

Some of the terms may be linguistically defined as follows: "Up-shar-look-kar" is apparently the Crow self-designation, Apsáalooke; the present Nez Perce name for Crow Indians is 'isú·x̣e; "Wah-wo-ko-ye-o-cose" may be wewúkiye kú·s, "elk water," for the Yellowstone River; "Walch-Nim-mah" may be walcníma, from the root wálc for "knife." Clark's cryptic letters "C. R." following the term "Ni-hi-Sir-te," may stand for "Ches-che-tar River," the Arikara name for the Heart River, which would be the next stream after the Knife River. The next tributary below that, however, is the Cannonball River, joining the Missouri River between Morton and Sioux counties, North Dakota, and perhaps the designated "C. R." (back)
8. Drouillard and three others went to the village of Broken Arm, according to Clark. (back)
9. Frazer, report the captains. (back)
10. This was actually news from Clark about the Cayuse Indians. (back)
11. Again, Hohots Ilppilp. (back)
12. Identified only as "Drewyer & three other men" by Clark. (back)