April 20, 1806
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April 20, 1806


some frost this morning. The Enesher an Skillutes are much better clad than they were last fall, there men have generally legings mockersons and large robes; many of them wear shirts of the same form with those of the Shoshone Chopunnish &c highly ornamented with porcupine quills.    the dress of their women differs very little from those of the great rapids and above.    their children frequently wear robes of the large grey squirrel skins, those of the men and women are principally deer skins, some wolf, [2] elk, bighorn and buffaloe; the latter they procure from the nations who sometimes visit the Missouri.    indeed a considerable proportion of their wearing apparel is purchased from their neighbours to the N. W. in exchange for pounded fish copper and beads.    at present the principal village of the Eneshur is below the falls on the N. side of the river.    one other village is above the falls on the S. side and another a few miles above on the N. side.    the first consists of 19, the 2cd of 11, and the 3rd of 5 lodges.    their houses like those of the Skillutes have their floors on the surface of the ground, but are formed of sticks and covered with mats and straw.    they are large and contain usually several families each. [3]    for fuel they use straw, small willows and the southern wood. [4]    they use the silk grass in manufacturing their fishing nets and bags, the bear grass and cedar bark are employed in forming a variety of articles.    they are poor, dirty, proud, haughty, inhospitable, parsimonious and faithless in every rispect, nothing but our numbers I beleive prevents their attempting to murder us at this moment.—

This morning I was informed that the natives had pilfered six tomahawks and a knife from the party in the course of the last night. I spoke to the cheif on this subject.    he appeared angry with his people and addressed them but the property was not restored.    one horse which I had purchased and paid for yesterday and which could not be found when I ordered the horses into close confinement yesterday I was now informed had been gambled away by the rascal who had sold it to me and had been taken away by a man of another nation. I therefore took the goods back from this fellow. I purchased a gun from the cheif for which I gave him 2 Elkskins.    in the course of the day I obtained two other indifferent horses for which I gave an extravigant price. I found that I should get no more horses and therefore resolved to proceed tomorrow morning with those which I had and to convey the baggage in two small canoes that the horses could not carry.    for his purpose I had a load made up for seven horses, the eighth Bratton was compelled to ride as he was yet unable to walk. I barted my Elksins old irons [5] and 2 canoes for beads.    one of the canoes for which they would give us but little I had cut up for fuel. These people have yet a large quantity of dryed fish on hand yet they will not let us have any but for an exorbitant price.    we purchased two dogs and some shappellel from them. I had the horses graized untill evening and then picquited and hubbled within the limited of our camp. I ordered the indians from our camp this evening and informed them that if I caught them attempting to perloin any article from us I would beat them severely.    they went off in reather a bad humour and I directed the party to examine their arms and be on their guard.    they stole two spoons from us in the course of the day. The Scaddals, Squan-nan-os, Shan-wah-pums and Shallattas [6] reside to the N. W. of these people, depend on hunting deer and Elk and trade with these people for their pounded fish.


This morning very Cold hills covered with Snow. I Showed the nativs what I had to give for their horses and attempted to purchase them.    they informed me that they would not Sell any horses to me, that their horses were at a long ways off and they would not trade them.    my offer was a blue rope, Callico Shirt, a handkerchef, 5 parcels of paint a Knife, a wampom moon [7] 4 braces of ribin, a pice of Brass and about 6 braces of yellow beeds; and to that amount for what I had I also offered my large blue blanket for one, my Coat Sword & Plume none of which Seem to entice those peple to give horses if they had any.    they Set in their huts which is of mats Supported on poles without fire.    at night when they wish a light they burn dry Straw & Some fiew Small dry willows.    they Speak defferent from those below, have but little to eate. Some roots & Dryed fish is to be found in their houses. I am half frozed at this inhospitable Village which is moved from its position above the falls to one below and Contains 19 large houses, a village is also established on the other Side imedeately above the falls.    all the natives who was established above the Falls for Some distance has removed

Those people are much better dressed than they were at the time we went down the river. They have all new, Deer, Elk, Ibex Goat & wolf Skin robes, their Children also the large squirel Skin robes, maney of them have Legins and mockersons, all of which they precure of the Indians at a distance in exchange for their pounded fish & Beeds, they also purchase Silk grass, of which they make their nets & Sales for takeing fish    they also purchase Bear grass and maney other things for their fish.    those people gave me roots and berries prepared in different ways for which I gave some Small articles in return.—Great numbers of Skiming knets on their houses. Those people are Pore and Kind durty & indolt. They ware their hair loose flowing the men cut in the foward which the Skilloots do not &c. &c.

I could not precure a Single horse of those people, dureing this day at any price, they offered me 2 for 2 kittles of which we Could not spear. I used every artifice decent & even false Statements to enduce those pore devils to Sell me horses.    in the evening two different men offered to Sell me three horses which they informed me was a little distance off and they would bring them imediately.    those two persons as I found went imediately off up the river to their tribe without any intention to find or Sell their horses.    a little before Sunset 3 men arived from Some distance above and informed me that they Came to See me.    at Sunset finding no probability of Capt Lewis arival, packed up the articles and took them into the lodge in which I lay last night. Great numbers of those people geathered around me to Smoke. I gave them 2 pipes and lay down in the back part of the house with Sgt. P. & the men with our arms in a Situation as to be ready in case of any alarm.    those pore people appear entirely harmless—    I purchased a dog and Some wood with a little pounded fish and Chappaless.    made a fire on the rocks and Cooked the dogs on which the men breckfast & Dined.    wind hard all day cold from N W.


a very cold morning the western mountains Covered with Snow    I Shewed the Eneshers the articles I had to give for their horses.    they without hezitation informed me that they would not Sell me any for the articles I had, if I would give them Kittles they would let me have horses, and not without.    that their horses were at a long ways off in the planes and they would not Send for them &c.    my offered was a blue robe, a Calleco Shirt, a Silk handkerchief, 5 parcels of paint, a knife, a Wampom moon, 8 yards of ribon, Several pieces of Brass, a mockerson awl and 6 braces of yellow beeds; and to that amount for each horse which is more than double what we gave either the Sohsohne or first flat heads we met with on Clarks river [8] I also offered my large blue blanket, my Coat Sword & plume none of which Seamed to entice those people to Sell their horses.    not with standing every exertion not a Single horse Could be precured of those people in the Course of the day. Those people are much better Clad than they were last fall, their men have generally legins mockersons and large robes.    maney of them ware Shirts of the Same forom of those of the Chopunnish and Shoshone highly ornimented with porcupine quills.    the dress of their winen differse verry little from those above the great rapids.    their Children have Small robes of the Squirel Skins.    those of the men & women are principally deer, Some elk, wolf, Ibix & buffalow which they precure from distance nations who purchase their Pounded fish in exchange for those robes & Beeds. The principal village of the Enesher nation is imedeately below the falls on the N. Side. one other village of the Same nation above the falls on the opposit Side and one other a few miles above on the North Side.—    The Houses of those people like the Skillutes have the flores of their Summer dwelling on the Surface of the earth in Sted of those Sellers in which they resided when we passed them last fall.    those houses are Covered with mats and Straw are large and Contain Several families each. I counted 19 at this Village & 11 on the opposit Side.    those people are pore durty haughty. they burn Straw and Small willows.    have but little to eate and deer with what they have.    they precure the Silk grass of which they make their nets, the bear grass for makeing their mats and Several other necessary of the Indians of the following nations who trade with them as also the Skillutes for their pounded fish. Viz. Skad-dats, Squan-nun-os, Shan-wap-poms, Shall-lat-tos, who reside to the north and Several bands who reside on the Columbia above.—    I precured a Sketch of the Columbia and its branches of those people in which they made the river which falls into the Columbia imediately above the falls on the South Side to branch out into 3 branches one of which they make head in Mt. Jefferson, one in mount Hood and the other in the S W. range of Mountains [9] and does not water that extensive Country we have heretofore Calculated on.    a great portion of that extensive tract of Country to the S. and S. W. of the Columbia and Lewis's river and between the Same and the waters of Callifornia must be watered by the Multnomah river.—    See Sketch in the latter part of this book (No. 5). [10] Those people are great jokies [11] and deciptfull in trade.

at Sunset finding that Capt Lewis would not arrive this evening as I expected, I packed up all the articles which I had exposed, at a Situation I had pitched on to Encamp, and at which place we had bought as maney fishing poles as made a fire to Cook a dog which I had purchased for the men to eate, and returned to the lodge which I had Slept in last night. great number gathered around me to Smoke, I gave them two pipes, and then lay my self down with the men to Sleep, haveing our merchendize under our heads and guns &c in our arms, as we always have in Similar Situations

Confluence of Snake and Columbia Rivers and Environs, ca. April 18–20, 1806,
Voorhis No. 3
Missouri Historical Society


Sunday 20th of April 1806.    a clear cold morning. Capt. Lewis went to tradeing for horses &C. Several of our men went out to hunt their horses but could not find all of them    we expect the Indians loosed their Spanil [12] and took them away expecting a reward to git them again. So we hired the Indians to hunt them.    found all except one who the man we bought him of Gambled him away with Some of an other nation & they had taken him away.    all the Indians we have Seen play a game & risque all the property they have at different games.    the game [13] that these Savages play is by setting in a circle & have a Small Smooth bone in their hands & Sing crossing their hands to fix it in a hidden manner from the other Side who gass the hand that has it in then counts one    a Stick Stuck in the ground for tallies & So on untill one Side or the other wins the propertey Stacked up.    this game is played with activity, and they appear merry & peaceable. Capt. Lewis took the property from the man that gambled away our horse.    we Sold old Robes Elk Skins &C.    &C. for white beeds.    these Savages have but little pounded Salmon in their village as they trade it to Several other nations &C.    the Indians would not give us any thing worth mentioning for our canoes So we Split & burnt one of them this evening.    we tyed up our horses &C.    we bought 2 more dogs & Some chappalell &c


Sunday 20th.    This was a pleasant morning with some white frost. We got two more horses and lost one; remained here all day and had a great deal of trouble with our horses, as they are all studs, and break almost every rope we can raise. We had to tie them up at night, and one broke away notwithstanding all our care and attention. We have also much trouble with the Indians as they are disposed to steal whenever they have an opportunity. With all our care they stole 4 or 5 tomahawks.

1. Following the date for this entry in Codex K it was apparently Biddle who wrote, "(see end of this book)." At the end of Codex K is the table of weather observations for April 1806, in which, under the remarks for April 20 is a long paragraph headed "for the journal of this date" (in Lewis's hand) with a pointing hand. It consists of a description of the "Enesher" and "Skillutes." It is the beginning paragraph of this entry. (back)
2. Probably the gray wolf, Canis lupus. (back)
3. This may be the Sk!in village according to Spier (TDW), 19. The houses at this village were mat lodges as typically constructed by Columbia Plateau peoples. Ray (CRP), 137–40; Ray (CDP), 174–77. (back)
4. Big, or common, sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Hitchcock et al., 5:70; Cutright (LCPN), 403. (back)
5. No doubt mostly broken pieces of iron equipment that the Indians could make into weapons or tools. This may explain how Lewis's branding iron came to be found in this vicinity years later; see October 5, 1805. (back)
6. These four groups were apparently divisions of the Klickitat Indians. In the Estimate of Western Indians, they were incorrectly identified as being Pisquows or Kittitas. The first tribe is discussed at April 18, 1806. Lewis and Clark placed them on the Klickitat River, but some authorities have them on the Yakima River. Being hunting peoples, they may have shifted about as needed to find game. Spier (TDW), 15; Hodge, 2:521–22, 527, 585, 629. The term "Shan-wah-pums" may be Shahaptian pšwánwapam, representing a Shahaptian group living in the upper Yakima River drainage. (back)
7. Perhaps a crescent-shaped object decorated with beads. (back)
8. The Bitterroot River in western Montana, where they met the Flatheads, also called Salish. Atlas maps 69, 70. (back)
9. The river is the Deschutes. The branch heading at Mt. Jefferson might be either the Warm Springs or the Metolius River; that heading at Mt. Hood would be the White River. The third branch may be Trout Creek, heading in the Blue Mountains. (back)
10. This notation apparently refers to the map near the back of Voorhis No. 3 (fig. 11); the reference to "No. 5" is not explainable. The map gives the date of its acquisition as April 18, two days before this entry. (back)
11. Thwaites (LC), 4:309, has "jokers," but the word probably refers to their "jockeying" in trade. (back)
12. Ordway must mean spancel, that is, to hobble with rope. (back)
13. Clark discusses the game on April 18; it is another version of the Indian hand game. (back)