July 26, 1806
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

July 26, 1806


The morning was cloudy and continued to rain as usual, tho' the cloud seemed somewhat thiner. I therefore posponed seting out untill 9 A. M. in the hope that it would clear off but finding the contrary result I had the horses caught and we set out biding a lasting adieu to this place which I now call camp disappointment. I took my rout through the open plains S. E. 5 ms. passing a small creek [1] at 2 ms. from the mountains wher I changed my direction to S. 75 E. for 7 ms. further and struck a principal branch [2] of Maria's river 65 yds. wide, not very deep, I passed this stream to it's south side and continued down it 2 ms. on the last mentioned course when another branch [3] of nearly the same dignity formed a junction with it, coming from the S. W.    this last is shallow and rappid; has the appearance of overflowing it's banks frequently and discharging vast torrants of water at certain seasons of the year.    the beds of both these streams are pebbly particularly the S. branch.    the water of the N. branch is very terbid while that of the S. branch is nearly clear not withstanding the late rains. I passed the S. branch just above it's junction and continued down the river which runs a little to the N of E 1 ms. and halted to dine and graize our horses. [4]    here I found some indian lodges which appeared to have been inhabited last winter in a large and fertile bottom well stocked with cottonwood timber.    the rose honeysuckle and redberry bushes constitute the undergrowth there being but little willow in this quarter both these rivers abov their junction appeared to be well stocked with timber or comparitively so with other parts of this country.    here it is that we find the three species of cottonwood which I have remarked in my voyage assembled together    that speceis common to the Columbia I have never before seen on the waters of the Missouri, also the narrow and broad leafed speceis. [5]    during our stay at this place R. Fields killed a buck a part of the flesh of which we took with us.    we saw a few Antelopes some wolves and 2 of the smallest speceis of fox [6] of a redish brown colour with the extremity of the tail black.    it is about the size of the common domestic cat and burrows in the plains.    after dinner I continued my rout down the river to the North of Eat about 3 ms. when the hills putting in close on the S side I determined to ascend them to the high plain which I did accordingly, keeping the Fields with me; Drewyer passed the river and kept down the vally of the river. I had intended to decend this river with it's course to it's junction with the fork which I had ascended and from thence have taken across the country obliquely to rose river and decend that stream to it's confluence with Maria's river. [7] the country through which this portion of Maria's river passes to the fork which I ascended appears much more broken than that above and between this and the mountains. I had scarcely ascended the hills before I discovered to my left at the distance of a mile an assembleage of about 30 horses, I halted and used my spye glass by the help of which I discovered several indians on the top of an eminence just above them who appeared to be looking down towards the river I presumed at Drewyer. about half the horses were saddled.    this was a very unpleasant sight, however I resolved to make the best of our situation and to approach them in a friendly manner. I directed J. Fields to display the flag which I had brought for that purpose and advanced slowly toward them, about this time they discovered us and appeared to run about in a very confused manner as if much allarmed, their attention had been previously so fixed on Drewyer that they did not discover us untill we had began to advance upon them, some of them decended the hill on which they were and drove their horses within shot of it's summit and again returned to the hight as if to wate our arrival or to defend themselves. I calculated on their number being nearly or quite equal to that of their horses, that our runing would invite pursuit as it would convince them that we were their enimies and our horses were so indifferent that we could not hope to make our escape by flight; added to this Drewyer was seperated from us and I feared that his not being apprized of the indians in the event of our attempting to escape he would most probably fall a sacrefice.    under these considerations I still advanced towards them; when we had arrived 〈at the distance of〉 within a quarter of a mile of them, one of them mounted his horse and rode full speed towards us, which when I discovered I halted and alighted from my horse; he came within a hundred paces halted looked at us and turned his horse about and returned as briskly to his party as he had advanced; while he halted near us I held out my hand and becconed to him to approach but he paid no attention to my overtures.    on his return to his party they all decended the hill and mounted their horses and advanced towards us leaving their horses behind them, we also advanced to meet them. I counted eight of them but still supposed that there were others concealed as there were several other horses saddled. I told the two men with me that I apprehended that these were the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie and from their known character I expected that we were to have some difficulty with them; that if they thought themselves sufficiently strong I was convinced they would attempt to rob us in which case be their numbers what they would I should resist to the last extremity prefering death to that of being deprived of my papers instruments and gun and desired that they would form the same resolution and be allert and on their guard.    when we arrived within a hundred yards of each other the indians except one halted I directed the two men with me to do the same and advanced singly to meet the indian with whom I shook hands and passed on to those in his rear, as he did also to the two men in my rear; we now all assembled and alighted from our horses; the Indians soon asked to smoke with us, but I told them that the man whom they had seen pass down the river had my pipe and we could not smoke untill he joined us. I requested as they had seen which way he went that they would one of them go with one of my men in surch of him, this they readily concented to and a young man set out with R. Fields in surch of Drewyer. I now asked them by sighns if they were the Minnetares of the North which they answered in the affermative; [8] I asked if there was any cheif among them and they pointed out 3    I did not believe them however I thought it best to please them and gave to one a medal to a second a flag and to the third a handkercheif, with which they appeared well satisfyed.    they appeared much agitated with our first interview from which they had scarcely yet recovered, in fact I believe they were more allarmed at this accedental interview than we were.    from no more of them appearing I now concluded they were only eight in number and became much better satisfyed with our situation as I was convinced that we could mannage that number should they attempt any hostile measures.    as it was growing late in the evening I proposed that we should remove to the nearest part of the river and encamp together, I told them that I was glad to see them and had a great deel to say to them.    we mounted our horses and rode towards the river which was at but a short distance, on our way we were joined by Drewyer Fields and the indian.    we decended a very steep bluff about 250 feet high to the river where there was a small bottom of nearly ½ a mile in length and about 250 yards wide in the widest part, [9] the river washed the bluffs both above and below us and through it's course in this part is very deep; the bluffs are so steep that there are but few places where they could be ascended, and are broken in several places by deep nitches which extend back from the river several hundred yards, their bluffs being so steep that it is impossible to ascend them; in this bottom there stand tree solitary trees [10] near one of which the indians formed a large simicircular camp [11] of dressed buffaloe skins and invited us to partake of their shelter which Drewyer and myself accepted and the Fieldses lay near the fire in front of the sheter.    with the assistance of Drewyer I had much conversation with these people in the course of the evening. I learned from them that they were a part of a large band which lay encamped at present near the foot of the rocky mountains on the main branch of Maria's river one ½ days march from our present encampment; that there was a whiteman with their band; that there was another large band of their nation hunting buffaloe near the broken mountains and were on there way to the mouth of Maria's river where they would probably be in the course of a few days.    they also informed us that from hence to the establishment where they trade on the Suskasawan river is only 6 days easy march or such as they usually travel with their women and childred which may be estimated at about 150 ms. [12] that from these traders they obtain arm amunition sperituous liquor blankets &c in exchange for wolves and some beaver skins. I told these people that I had come a great way from the East up the large river which runs towards the rising sun, that I had been to the great waters where the sun sets and had seen a great many nations all of whom I had invited to come and trade with me on the rivers on this side of the mountains, that I had found most of them at war with their neighbours and had succeeded in restoring peace among them, that I was now on my way home and had left my party at the falls of the misouri with orders to decend that river to the entrance of Maria's river and there wait my arrival and that I had come in surch of them in order to prevail on them to be at peace with their neighbours particularly those on the West side of the mountains and to engage them to come and trade with me when the establishment is made at the entrance of this river to all which they readily gave their assent and declared it to be their wish to be at peace with the Tushepahs whom they said had killed a number of their relations lately and pointed to several of those present who had cut their hair as an evidince of the truth of what they had asserted. I found them extreemly fond of smoking and plyed them with the pipe untill late at night.    I told them that if they intended to do as I wished them they would send some of their young men to their band with an invitation to their chiefs and warriors to bring the whiteman with them and come down and council with me at the entrance of Maria's river and that the ballance of them would accompany me to that place, where I was anxious now to meet my men as I had been absent from them some time and knew that they would be uneasy untill they saw me.    that if they would go with me I would give them 10 horses and some tobacco.    to this proposition they made no reply, I took the first watch tonight and set up untill half after eleven; the indians by this time were all asleep, I roused up R. Fields and laid down myself; I directed Fields to watch the movements of the indians and if any of them left the camp to awake us all as I apprehended they would attampt to seal [steal] our horses.    this being done I fell into a profound sleep and did not wake untill the noise of the men and indians awoke me a little after light in the morning.—

N. 18° E 6 Miles to a Point on the Std. Side    passed a long narrow Is-
land on Std. and Som bars, a high Clift on Lard.
N 57° E. 5 miles to a point on the Stard. Side    Passed an Island and 4
Bars.    a large Creek 40 yds wide 〈Little Wolf〉 Creek on
Lard. Side at 4 miles
East 4 miles to a Clift    a high Pine land on the Stard. Side
passed a Small Creek on the Std. at 1 mile    the head of
an Island below the Lard. Clifts at 2 miles
N. 12° E 3 ½ miles to a Clift of rocks on the Sard. Side    passed the Is-
land and 2 Stoney bars    white Clifts
East 5 miles to a Clift of rocks on the Std    passed Several Stoney
N E. 2 ½ miles to a high Clift on the Lard Side opposit several Small
Islands    the Chanel much divided    passed 2 Small Is-
lands.    low bottom on Stard. Side.
East 2 ½ miles to a Stard. Bend    psd. an Island and Stoney bar
N. 10° E 1 mile to a Clift on the Lard. Side    Islands on Stbd.
N. 54° E 1 ½ mile to the lower point of the near the Stard Side    passed
the upper point of an Island
North 4 miles to a high white clif on the Lard Side    passed 2 Stony
East 6 mils to the 〈lower part of a large Island Seperated from
the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel〉    Enteranc of a Small
brook Std Sd. Passed three Islands and the upper part of
the 4th near th Lard.
North 4 miles to the 〈upper〉 lower pts of an Island close to the Lard
Side. behind which a large Creek falls in on the Lard Side
N. 60° E 3 miles to a tree 〈on〉 und. the Lard. Clifts    a Clift on th Lard
East 4 miles to a large tree in a Std Bend
N. 35° E 4 〈5?〉 miles to Lard. Bend    passed a Clift on the Stard. at 2 mile.
Small Bays Ld.
East 1 ½ miles to the lower pt. of an Isld.
N. 35 E. 2 ½ mils to a Clift in the Lard. bend
East ½ a mile to enterance of Big horn river on the Stard Side
220 yards wide from 5 to 7 feet deep quite across.

I walked up the bighorn and took the following Courses    viz.

S. 35° E 3 miles to a low clift on the right    passed a point on the right
at 1 ½ miles    a island close to the left side
S. 61° E 3 miles to a high band of a 2d Bottom in a left hand bend
passed Some high waves on the right hand Side
S. 38° W. 4 miles to a right hand Bend    passed a large Creek of very
Muddly water from the left at one mile.

The bottoms of this river wide and Covered with timber. The current Swift and tareing away its bank in each bend with extensive Sand points. less 〈grave〉 large gravle than the rochejhone


Set out this morning very early    proceeded on    Passed Creeks [NB: Hall's N. Side ] [13] very well. the Current of the river reagulilarly Swift much divided by Stoney islands and bars also handsome Islands Covered with Cotton wood the bottoms extensive on the Stard. Side on the Lard.    the Clifts of high land border the river, those clifts are composed of a whitish rock of an excellent grit for Grindstones. [14] The Country back on each Side is wavering lands with Scattering pine.    passed 2 Small Brooks on the Stard. Side and two large ones on the Lard. Side. [15] I shot a Buck from the Canoe and killed one other on a Small Island. and late in the evening passed a part of the river which was rock under the Lard. Clifts    fortunately for us we found an excellent Chanel to pass down on the right of a Stony Island half a mile below this bad place, we arived at the enterance of Big Horn River on the Stard. Side. [16]    here I landed imediately in the point which is a Sof mud mixed with the Sand [17] and Subject to overflow for Some distance back in between the two rivers. I walked up the big horn ½ a mile and crossed over to the lower Side, and formed a Camp on a high point. [18] I with one of my men Labeech walked up the N E Side of Big horn river 7 miles to th enterance of a Creek which falls in on the N E. Side and is 28 yds wide    Some running water which is very muddy this Creek I call Muddy Creek [19] Some fiew miles above this Creek the river bent around to the East of South. [20] The Courses as I assended it as follows    Viz:

S 35° E. 3 miles to a low Clift on the right    passed a point on the right
at 1 ½ Ms. an island Situatd. close to the left hand Shore.
under this Clift is Some Swift rapid water and high waves
S. 61° E. 3 miles to a high bank of a Second bottom in the left hand
bend    passed head of the isld.
S. 38° W. 4 miles to a right hand bend, passing a large Creek of muddly
water on the left side at 1 mile, opposit a Sand bar from the

The bottoms of the Big Horn river are extencive and Covered with timber principally Cotton.    it's Current is regularly Swift, like the Missouri, it washes away its banks on one Side while it forms extensive Sand bars on the other. Contains much less portion of large gravel than the R: Rochjhone and its water more mudy and of a brownish colour, while that of the rochejhone is of a lightish Colour. [21]    the width of those two rivers are very nearly the Same imediately at their enterances the river Rochejhone much the deepest and contain most water. I measured the debth of the bighorn quit across a ½ mile above its junction and found it from 5 to 7 feet only while that of the River [NB: roche jaune] is in the deepest part 10 or 12 feet water    on the lower Side of the bighorn is extencive boutifull and leavil bottom thinly covered with Cotton wood under which there grows great quantities of rose bushes. [22] I am informed by the Menetarres Indians and others that this River takes its rise in the Rocky mountains with the heads of the river plate and at no great distance from the river Rochejhone and passes between the Coat Nor or Black Mountains and the most Easterly range of Rocky Mountains. [23]    it is very long and Contains a great perpotion of timber on which there is a variety of wild animals, perticularly the big horn which are to be found in great numbers on this river.    [NB: 2 large forks come in on Sth. & 1 on North] [24]    Buffalow, Elk, Deer and Antelopes are plenty and the river is Said to abound in beaver.    it is inhabited by a great number of roveing Indians of the Crow Nation, the paunch Nation [NB: a band of Crows ] [25] and the Castahanas [NB: a band of Snake In. ] [26]    all of those nations who are Subdivided rove and prosue the Buffalow of which they make their principal food, their Skins together with those of the Big horn and Antilope Serve them for Clothes. This river is Said to be navagable a long way for perogus without falls and waters    a fine rich open 〈200 yds wide〉 Country.    it is 200 yds water & ¼ of a Me. wd. I returned to Camp a little after dark, haveing killed one deer, finding my Self fatigued went to bead without my Supper. Shields killed 2 Bull & 3 Elk.

Courses distances & remarks July 26th 1806
N. 18° E. to a point on the Stard. Side, passed a low narrow is } 6
  land on the Stard. and Som bars near the Lard. Side
N. 57° E. to a point on the Stard Side.    passed an island and 4 } 6
  Stoney bars.    also a large Creek 40 Yds wide I call
  Halls R [27] on the Lard. Side at 4 miles.    but little
East 4 Miles to a Clift under a high pine hill on the Stard. } 4
  Side.    passed a Small Creek on the Stard. at 1 mile
  and the Lard    Clift opsd. the head of an Isld. at 2
  Miles on this course
N. 12° E. to a clift of white rocks on the Lard. Side, [28] passed the } 3 ½
  island and 2 Stoney bars
East to clift of rocks on the Stard. Side    passed several } 5
  bars or islands
N. 45° E. to a high clift on the Lard. Side opposit Several Small } 2 ½
  islands. Chanel of the river much divided.    passed
  2 Small Islands.    low bottoms on the Stard Side rocky
  Clifts on Lard side
East to a Stard. Bend    passed an island & a Stony bar   2 ½
N. 10° E. to a clift on the Lard Side Island on Stard. Side   1 ½
N. 54° E. to the lower point of the island near the Stard. Side. } 1 ½
  passed the upper point of an island
North to a high White Clift on the Lard. Side haveing passed } 4
  two Stoney Islands
East to the enterance of a Small brook on the Stard.    passed } 6
  3 islands and the upper point of the 4th near Lard.
North to the lower point of an island Close to the lard. Side } 4
  back of which a large Creek falls in on the Lard Side
  Island brook [29]
N. 60° E. to a tree under a Lard. Clift passed a Std. Clift   3
East to a large tree in the Stard. Bend   4
N. 35° E. to a Lard. Bend    passed the Stard. Clift at 2 Miles.   4
East to the lower [SW?] point of an island   1 ½
N. 35° E. to a clift in a lard. Bend under which there is a rapid. } 2 ½
  a gravelly bar opposit on the S. E of which there is a
  good Chanel.
East to the junction of Big horn River on the Stard.    220 }    ½
  yards wide    from 5 to 7 feet deep quit across, and
  encamped on the lower side    bottom subject to floods
    Miles 62

Saturday 26th July 1806.    a wet disagreeable morning.    an Indn. dog came about our Camp    we gave him Some meat.    the portage River too high to waid but is falling fast. Colter & Potts went at running the canoes down the rapids to the white perogue near the carsh. [30]    the rest of us returned to willow Creek took on the other large canoe and halted to asist the horses as the truck wheels Sank in the mud nearly to the hub. Cruzatte killed a buffaloe    we took the best of the meat and returned with much hard fatigue to portage River and got the canoes and all the baggage down to the white perogue and Camped having got the carsh opened and all brought to the White perogue & all Safe &C.


Saturday 26th.    The morning was cloudy. Eight of us went back to Willow creek for the other canoe, and the rest of the party [31] were employed in taking down the canoes and baggage to the lower end of the portage, where the periogue had been left. [32] It rained very hard all night, which has made the plains so muddy, that it is with the greatest difficulty we can get along with the canoe; though in the evening, after a hard day's labour, we got her safe to Portage river, and the men run her down to the lower landing place, where we encamped. A few drops of rain fell in the course of the day.

3. Badger Creek, meeting Two Medicine River in Glacier County. Just below its mouth the party passed into Pondera County, Montana. (back)
4. That is, about one mile below the mouth of Badger Creek, on Two Medicine River in Pondera County. Actually, the general course of the river is a little south of east in this area. (back)
5. Lewis makes an astute ecological observation; the three major cottonwood species typical of the plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Pacific Coast all occur together here in the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The species of the Columbia is black cottonwood, the "narrow [leafed]" is narrowleaf cottonwood, and the "broad leafed" is plains cottonwood. Cf. Cutright (LCPN), 316, 316 n. 7. (back)
6. Swift fox, Vulpes velox. See July 6 and 8, 1805. (back)
7. Lewis intended to follow Two Medicine River to its junction with Cut Bank Creek, then head southeasterly to Teton River and follow that stream down to the junction with the Marias. (back)
8. This conversation almost certainly was in sign language. Actually these Indians were Piegans, members of one of the three main divisions of the Blackfeet confederation, the other two being the Bloods and the Blackfeet proper. They were an Algonquian-language people who had evidently moved west onto the high plains centuries before. In the eighteenth century they acquired the horse and became a classic example of the bison-hunting nomads of the Great Plains. In 1754 Anthony Hendry, or Henday, a Hudson's Bay Company trader, was the first white man to make direct contact with these people, in Canada. Equipped with horses and traders' guns, by Lewis and Clark's time they had become "the dominant military power on the northwestern plains, feared by all neighboring tribes." Their range straddled the present U.S.-Canadian boundary in southern Alberta and northwest Montana. Relatively friendly toward Canadian traders, they became notorious for their enmity toward the American mountain men. Some writers have traced the origin of this hostility to these Piegans' violent encounter with Lewis's party, but it is just as likely to have arisen because the Blackfeet resented the Americans trading firearms to their enemies, like the Shoshones, Crows, Flatheads, and Nez Perces. Today some of the Blackfeet live on the Blackfeet Reservation in northwest Montana, and others on reserves in Canada. Many years after the encounter with Lewis, Wolf Calf, supposedly a member of this Piegan party, gave an account of the episode which was printed in Wheeler, 2:311–12. Ewers (BRNP); Ronda (LCAI), 243–44; Bradley (MS), 135. (back)
9. This campsite was in Pondera County, on the Blackfeet Reservation, along the south side of Two Medicine River about four miles below the mouth of Badger Creek and downstream from Kipps Coulee, about one and one-half miles south of the Glacier-Pondera county line and some fourteen miles southwest of the town of Cut Bank. A spot identified as the actual site has been marked in recent years based largely on the work of Helen West, along with Robert Anderson, and Ed Mathison in 1964 (see West). A more recent study by Bergantino casts doubts on the marked site being the actual spot of the camp of July 26–27, 1806. The limitations of Lewis's journal comments, course and distance references, and compass sightings, along with the similarity of terrain in the area opens the possibility that other nearby spots may be likely competitors for the designation. Due to the difficulties involved, an incontestible locating of the site may never be made. The same can be said for pinpointing most Lewis and Clark camps. (back)
10. Three very old cottonwoods were standing in the location West identified as the campsite. Their proximity to the marked site seemed to validate the designation. Nevertheless, the results of borings have been inconclusive and the trees cannot be positively identified as the ones Lewis mentions. The trees presently suffer from heart rot and were partially burned some years ago. (back)
11. Lewis probably means "hemispherical"; skins thrown over a rough dome formed of branches made a type of temporary shelter common to many Western tribes. (back)
12. Lewis's estimated distance would take one to the Bow River in Alberta, where there was a North West Company post reportedly abandoned in 1804. However, the company's principal post for the Blackfeet trade was Rocky Mountain House, founded in 1799 on the North Saskatchewan River, near the site of the present Alberta community of the same name. That would be a distance of some 240 miles from Lewis's current location, a considerable journey to make in six days even for these mobile people. Innis, 234; Coues (NLEH), 2:705; Ewers (BRNP), 31; Glover, 79 n. 1. (back)
13. Given as both "Halls 〈dry〉 River" and "Little Wolf C" on Atlas map 110, and "Halls creek" on Atlas map 117, after Hugh Hall of the party. It is present Cow Gulch, meeting the Yellowstone River in Yellowstone County, Montana, some five miles northeast of the village of Pompeys Pillar. (back)
14. Again, the light-colored, silty sandstone in the Hell Creek Formation. (back)
15. There are several small streams on the starboard (south) side of the Yellowstone in this area, some now having names, some not. The first, unnamed and a little beyond "Halls River" on the opposite side on Atlas maps 110 and 117, may be present Kaiser Creek in Yellowstone County. The second, also unnamed and a little upstream from "Island Brook" on the Atlas maps, is perhaps Sand Creek in Yellowstone County above Buffalo Creek. The first large creek, which does not appear on the Atlas maps, may be Hibbard Creek, in Yellowstone County. The second, Clark's "Island Brook," would be Buffalo Creek in Yellowstone County. (back)
16. The Bighorn River forms the Yellowstone-Treasure county line where it reaches the Yellowstone River, a mile or so above the present village of Bighorn. Atlas maps 110, 117, 118. (back)
17. The Bighorn River flows across a large exposure of shales of the Colorado Group after leaving Bighorn Canyon. These shales provide the dark color and mud to the river. The sand is all that remains of the rock transported beyond the mouth of the canyon. (back)
18. The camp was above the junction of the Bighorn River with the Yellowstone and on the stream's east in Treasure County. Atlas maps 110, 118. (back)
19. This stream is Tullock Creek, entering the Bighorn from the southeast in Treasure County; on Atlas maps 110 and 117 it is "Muddy Creek" as in the journal entry, but on Clark's map of 1810 (Atlas map 125) it is "Horse River." (back)
20. The general course of the Bighorn River going upstream is south or southwesterly; the bend that Clark seems to be talking about is a small one. (back)
21. Clark here describes a typical fluvial cut and fill process. The water of the Bighorn River is more muddy near its mouth than is the water of the Yellowstone because the Bighorn flows across a large exposure of shales of the Colorado Group after leaving Bighorn Canyon. These shales provide most of the dark color and mud to the river. (back)
22. Western wild rose. (back)
23. Both main branches of the Platte rise in the Colorado Rockies; some tributaries of the North Platte, such as the Sweetwater River, are relatively close to the upper Bighorn River in Wyoming. Some tributaries of the Bighorn rise in the Absaroka Range, which is east of the upper Yellowstone. The "Black Mountains" in this case may be the Big Horn and Rosebud mountains, in agreement with Lewis and Clark's grouping of various outlying ranges of the Rockies as part of the Black Hills. (back)
24. The two southern (more properly eastern) branches of the Bighorn are probably the Little Bighorn River, always associated with Custer's defeat by the Sioux and other Indians in 1876, in Big Horn County, Montana, and Nowater Creek in Big Horn County, Wyoming. The principal tributaries on the western side are Shoshone River and Greybull River in Big Horn County, Wyoming, and Wind River in Fremont County, Wyoming. (back)
25. The Hidatsas referred to the Crows as "the people who refused the paunch." The "Paunch tribe" are No. 36 in the Estimate of the Eastern Indians. See also November 12, 1804. Hodge, 1:44–45. (back)
26. The Castahanas are No. 34 in the Estimate of the Eastern Indians, where they are described as speaking the same language as the "Me na ta re (or big belly)" and are also called "Gens des Vache." The latter term commonly referred to the Arapahoes, who spoke an Algonquian tongue. The captains used "Minitare," "Big Belly," and "Gros Ventre" to refer either to the Hidatsas or to the Atsinas. The latter are linguistically related to the Arapahoes. If their principal hunting ground was on the upper Bighorn River, we might assume them to be a division of the Crows, whose Siouan language was similar to that of the Hidatsas. "Gens des Vache" might be a mistake for "Gens de Panse" or Paunch Indians, which would make them Crows (see earlier note in this entry). Since Clark did not meet them, his information may have derived either from Sacagawea or from his sources for the Estimate of Eastern Indians, that is, from the Mandans, Hidatsas, and white fur traders. Hyde (IHP), 184–85, speculates that they were a Shoshonean group (hence "Snakes") who had been driven from the upper Bighorn by the time of Lewis and Clark, and identifies them with the Kwahari, or Kwahadi, Comanches. Hodge, 1:44–45, 212. (back)
27. "I call Halls R" may be a later addition, interlined by Clark. (back)
28. This is a light-colored, silty sandstone in the Hell Creek Formation. (back)
29. "Island brook" may be a later addition by Clark. (back)
30. The white pirogue was hidden in the area of the lower portage camp below Belt Creek on June 18, 1805. (back)
31. Ordway says Colter and Potts ran the canoes down the rapids to the lower portage camp. (back)
32. Where the white pirogue was hidden near the lower portage camp below Belt Creek, Chouteau County, Montana, on June 18, 1805. (back)