September 12, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

September 12, 1805

N. W 11 miles to the forks of the Creek    road passing through a hilley
countrey thickly timbered with the long leaf short leaf Spruce
Pine    crossed 6 branches which runs from the left the 1st the
largest    Killed 3 [words illegible] this morning    Dined at the
forks, passed a Hot hous covd with Earth on the 1st fork.
S. 75° W 12 miles to the Creek striking the creek at 4 mile and passing
over a high mountain for 8 miles    no water    the hills steep
& rockey & thickly timbered [one line illegible]

a white frost    Set out at 7 oClock & proceeded on up the Creek, passed a Fork [1] on the right on which I saw near an old Indian encampment a Swet [NB: Sweat] house Covered wthh earth, at 2 miles assended a high hill & proceeded through a hilley and thickly timbered Countrey for 9 miles & on the Right [EC: hand side] of the Creek, passing Several branches from the right of fine clear water and Struck at a fork [2] at which place the road forks, one passing up each fork. The Timber is Short & long leaf Pine Spruce Pine & fur. [3] The road through this hilley Countrey is verry bad passing over hills & thro' Steep hollows, over falling timber &c. &c.    continued on & passed Some most intolerable road on the Sides of the Steep Stoney mountains, which might be avoided by keeping up the Creek which is thickly covered with under groth & falling timber Crossed a mountain 8 miles with out water & encamped on a hill Side on the Creek after Decending a long Steep mountain, [4] Some of our Party did not git up untill 10 oClock P M. I mad camp at 8    on this roade & particularly on this Creek the Indians have pealed a number of Pine for the under bark which they eate at certain Season of the year, I am told in the Spring they make use of his bark [5]    our hunters Killed only one Pheasant this after noon. Party and horses much fatigued.


Thursday 12th Sept. 1805.    a fair morning.    a white frost.    the hunters Set out eairly    we loaded and Set out Soon after and proceeded on    Soon took the Mountains    came up and down Several Steep places    crossed Several Small creeks and we descended a bad Step part of the Mout. and came down on the creek again and halted to dine    our hunters had killed this day 4 Deer and a pheasant    we dined and proceeded on    crossed 2 more creeks ascended up a mountain on a high ridge    a verry bad trail rough and rockey. [6]    we found no water nor place to Camp untill 10 oClock at night.    then descended a Steep part of the Mountain.    came down on the creek which we left this morning or at noon and we had came 17½ miles this day.    and near Sd. creek where we could not find a level place to Sleep, and Scarcely any feed for our horses


Thursday 12th.    We started early on our journey and had a fine morning. Having travelled 2 miles we reached the mountains which are very steep; but the road over them pretty good, as it is much travelled by the natives, who come across to the Flathead river to gather cherries and berries. Our hunters in a short time killed 4 deer. At noon we halted at a branch of the creek, [7] on the banks of which are a number of strawberry vines, haws, and service berry bushes. At 2 we proceeded on over a large mountain, where there is no water, and we could find no place to encamp until late at night, when we arrived at a small branch, and encamped by it, in a very inconvenient place, having come 23 miles.


Thursday 12th Sept. 1805.    a white frost, and clear pleasant morning.    the hunters Set out eairly.    we loaded up and Set out soon after Sunrise, and proceeded on a Short distance.    then took the mountains covred with pitch pine.    went up and down a nomber of bad hills and mot.    crossed Several runs & about 1 oClock P. m. we descended a bad part of the mot. nearly Steep    came down on the creek a gain, and halted to dine.    our hunters has killed this day 4 Deer and a fessent.    we proceeded on crossed 2 more creeks, and assended a high rough mountain rockey & a verry rough trail to follow.    we proced. on along the ridge which was covred with pitch pine timber.    night came on and we had to go through the thickets of pine and over logs &c. untill about 10 oClock at in the evening before we could git any water.    then descended a Steep part of the mountain down on the Creek 〈&〉 which we left at noon, and Camped on the bank of the creek where we had Scarsely room to Sleep.    Came 17½ miles this day.    Saw high Mountains to the South of us covred with Snow, which appears to lay their all the year round.    Scarsely any feed for our horses.

Thursday Septemr. 12th    This morning Clear weather with white frost & our hunters went out early to hunt; We loaded up our horses, and set out on our Journey, soon after sun rise, & proceeded on a short distance & took up to the Mountains, which were on their Tops cover'd with Pitch pine trees.    We then continued ascending & descending Mountains & bad hills & crossed several Runs.—

About 1 oClock P. M. we descended a bad part of the Mountains, which was nearly steep, & came down on the Creek which we had left,—    where we halted to dine & where our hunters came to us, & had killed 4 Deer & a Pheasant which they brought to us, We halted for one hour & proceeded on, and crossed 2 Creeks, and ascended a high rough rockey mountain, & followed a very rough trail.    We proceeded on along the ridge of one of these mountains which was covered with Pitch pine timber.    Night came on and we travelled in the dark, through thickets of pine Trees, & passed over logs & bad places untill about 10 o'Clock P. M. before we could get to a place where water was convenient to encamp at, which was at a steep part of the Mountain, which we descended down to a Creek, being the same which we had left at noon.    We encamped on this Creek, where we had scarcely Room to lay down to Sleep, 〈on〉 having come about 17½ Miles this day.—    We found here, very little food for our horses, and saw Mountains this day which lay to the South of us covered with Snow, which lies on those Mountains during the whole Year.—

1. Woodman Creek, Missoula County, Montana. Space, 5; Atlas map 69. (back)
2. Grave Creek, Missoula County. Space, 6; Atlas map 69. (back)
3. Short-leaf pine is probably lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. Along the Jefferson River (see August 3, 1805) and earlier, the captains used the term short-leaf pine to refer to the limber pine. Now they are out of the range of limber pine, so short-leaf must refer to a new species, lodgepole pine. Little (CIH), 50-W, 56-W; Hitchcock et al., 1:125–26; information of Ralph S. Space, Orofino, Idaho. Long-leaf pine remains ponderosa pine. Spruce pine is Engelmann spruce as discussed in notes for September 9. Gass used the term on September 14 and Whitehouse on September 16, when the party was in an area where Engelmann spruce is the only logical tree of reference. Fir is either subalpine fir, Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt., or Douglas fir, more likely the latter. Little (CIH), 7-W. (back)
4. Some two miles below (east of) Lolo Hot Springs, Missoula County, near U.S. Highway 12. Space, 6; Peebles (LT), 3; Atlas map 69. (back)
5. Ponderosa pine has edible underbark as described here. (back)
6. The party passed along the north side of Lolo Creek, crossing Woodman and Grave creeks and a number of smaller streams, all in Missoula County, Montana. (back)
7. They traveled up Lolo Creek, passing various branches, and nooned at Grave Creek, where the trail forks, in Missoula County, Montana. (back)