November 16, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

November 16, 1805


a fine morning cool the latter part of the night, I had all our articles of every discription examined, and found much wet, had all put out & dried, The 5 Indians Theves left me. I took a meridean altd. with Sextt. 50° 36' 15 the Shakeing emige below—    I Sent out Several hunters Some to kill fowl others to hunt deer or Elk. The Sea is fomeing and looks truly dismal to day, from the wind which blew to day from the S. W.    an Indian Canoe passed down to day, loaded with roots &c.    three Indians Came up from below I gave them Smoke but allowed them no kind of Priveleges what ever, they camped with the 4 which Came down yesterday, near us, The evening provd. Cloudy & I could make no lunar observations.    one man Sick with a violent Cold, Caught by lying in his wet Clothes, Several nights    Course from Stormey point to Cape Disapointment is 〈West〉 [blank] Miles, passd a Small Creek and an old village at 2 miles on the Stard Side    a Small Creek at 1 mile    we Encamped just above a Point in a Deep bay to the Stard. Side into which falls 2 Small rivers Std. [2] Grat many Indians liveing on the Bay & those two rivers, the 〈lower End of a large Island in the Mouth of the Columbia opsd. to us, we See Islands at Some distance from Land S. W.〉    the Countrey on the Stard. Side high broken & thickly timbered, that on the Lard. at Some distance from Point Adms high and mountains on a Pinecal of a which is Snow at this time—    near the Point is Low bottom land—

Mouth of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon,
ca. November 16–25, 1805, Codex I, p. 152
(American Philosophical Society library,
used with permission.)

our hunters and fowlers killd 2 Deer 1 Crane & 2 ducks, my Servt. York killed 2 Geese & 8 white, black and Speckle Brants, [3] The White Brant, with part of their wings black is much the largest, the black brant is verry Small, a little larger than a large Duck—    the deer pore but large


Cool the latter part of the last night this morning Clear and butifull; I had all our articles of every discription examined and put out to Dry. The 5 Chin nooks left us    I took a meridenal altitude with the Sextn. 50° 36' 15 which gave for Lattitude 46° 19' 11 1/10" North. I Sent out Several hunters and fowlers in pursute Elk, Deer, or fowls of any kind.    wind hard from the S W    The Waves high & look dismal indeed breaking with great fury on our beech    an Indian canoe pass down to day loaded with Wap-pa-toe roots; Several Indians came up to day from below, I gave them Smoke but allowed them no kind of privilage whatever in the camp, they with the 4 which came down yesterday encamped a Short distance from us. The evening proved Cloudy and I could not take any Luner observations—    One man Sick with a violent cold, Caught by laying in his wet leather Clothes for maney nights past.

The Countrey on the Stard Side above Haley Bay is high broken and thickley timbered    on the Lard Side from Point Adams the Contrey appears low for 15 or 20 miles back to the mountains, a pinical of which 〈is〉 now is 〈either〉 Covered with Snow or hail, as the opposit is too far distant to be distinguished well, I Shall not attempt to describe any thing on that Side at present. [4]    our hunters and fowlers killed 2 Deer 1 Crain & 2 Ducks, and my man York killed 2 geese and 8 Brant, 3 of them white with a part of their wings black and much larger than the Grey brant which is a Sise larger than a Duck.

    2nd November 1805 [5]
South     1 Mile to the enterence of a Creek under a bluff on the Lard
Side, passed the upper point of large Island Seperated from
the Stard Shore by a narrow Chanel at this time without any
running water.    a Creek falls into this Chanl. from the moun-
tains on the Stard Side, which is also without water at this
time. This Island is high rich and open, covered with Straw-
berry vines and grass narrow open bottom on the Lard Side.
S. 50° W.     5 Miles to a timbered bottom on the Lard Side passed the lower
point of Straw berry Island at 3 miles opposit an Island cov-
ered with wood, 2 other Islands a little below Covered with
wood also, all Small.    opposit on the Stard. Side is a rock Sit-
uated in a bottom at Some distance from the hills about 800
feet high and about 400 yards arround which we Call the
Beaten rock, both bottoms and mountains thickly timbered
passed a village of houses at 4 miles on the Stard. Side
S. 74° W.   12 Miles to a Stard. point of rocks on Stard. Side a high clift of
black rocks. A Stard point at 4 miles.    here the mountains are
become lower on each side and thickly timbered, the river
about 2 miles wide.    passed a rock in the middle of the river
at 10 miles of 100 feet high and 80 feet diamiuter deep bend
to Stard.
S 58° W.     4 Miles to the point of a large bottom on the Stad Side en-
camped on the Sard. Side    the mountains leave the river on
both Sides
    3rd November 1805
West     3 Miles to the upper mouth of a river on the Lard Side 120
yards wide the bottom is a quick Sand    we Call this Quick
Sand river
   a large Creek opposit below a Small prarie. passed
Several Sand bars in the river. Country low
Q. Sand R.   25 Miles to the Lower rapid & above tide water. [6]
S 70° W.     7 Miles to the upper point of a large Island resembling a di-
mond    passed the lower mouth of quicksand river at 3 miles
opposit to a Creek on the Stard. Side and head of a large Is-
land near the Stard. Side faced with rock    passed the lower
point of Said Island at 6½ miles 1½ mile wide. Great num-
bers of fowl flying and Sea Otter in the river.
S 87° W.     3 Miles on the North Side of the Island and Encamped. met 2
Canous &c. &c.
    4th November 1805
West     6 Miles to the North Side and lower point of a large island pass-
ing the lower point of dimont Island at 3 miles a little below
the head of the large Island near the Lard. Side. river wide
and Countrey low on both Sides below quick Sand river and
Covered with pine generally.    this Island is only Seperated
from one imediately below it on the Lard by a narrow Chanel
in which there is only water at high tide.
N. 88° W.     6 Miles to a point on the Stard. Side.    passed a village of 25
houses on the Lard. Side a little below the Islands, built of
Straw & bark 50 Canoes and about 200 men Ske luters N.
N. 80° W     3 Miles on the Sard Side a pon & Small prarie on the Stard.
passed the head of a Verry large Island near the middle
of the river at 1 mile, and 2d Island opsd.    the end of this
Course Situated on the N. Side of the large Island.
N. 76° W.     4 Miles on the Stard. Side    passed an island near the large Is-
land on its North Side (I walked) on Std. open bottoms and
Some ponds Small
N. 45° W.     3 Miles on the Stard. Side    passed the lower point of the large
Island which I call image Canoe Island from 2 Canoes which
we met at this island with tall images on them.    4 Small Is-
lands at its lower point all nearest the Lard Side.
N. 35° W.     1 Mile on the Stard. Side bottoms low & extencive not subject to
overflow.    river 1½ ms. wide
North     3 Miles to a white tree on the Stard. Side. Mt. St Helian bears N
25° E. about 80 miles
   high and Covered with Snow passed a
village of 4 houses on the Stard. Side at 2 miles. one house at 3
N. 28° W.     3 Miles to a Stard. Bend and Encamped near a house on the
Stard. Side, haveing passed a village on each Side which I
could not See distinctly at it was dusk.
    5th November 1805
N. 35° W.     3 Miles to a Stard. point    a Small prarie on the Stard. Side river
at this place ¾ of a mile.
N. 30° W.     3 Miles to the S W. Side of an Island Sepperated from the Stard
Side by a narrow Chanel this Island Covered with green
bryors &c the river here widenes to 1½ miles passed 2 huts of
Indians on the Lard Side.
N. 12° W.     3 Miles to a Lard point of Rocks opposit the upper point of an
island on the Stard. Side    passed the lower point of Green
bryor Island
at 2 miles.    behind this island a little above the
lower point on the Stard. is a large village of Skil-lutes Nation
nearly ¼ of a mile in length    I counted 14 large houses in
front next to the Chanel
N. 22° W.     6 Miles to a Stard. point passing a Stream or Chanel behind an
island at ½ a mile nearly ¼ of a mile wide on the Lard Side.
a point of rocks, above, and Some low Clifts below.
N. 30° W.     5 Miles to a point of wood land on the Stard. Side of the river,
the Shore boald & rockey covered with a thick groth of pine
timber as above.    an extincive low isld. and bottom on the
lard Side.    passed 2 Islands on the Stard. and the lower point
of a third island.
N. 40° W.

E-cal-ar Isd.
    7 Miles to a point of wood land Stard.    passed the lower point
of the large island Close under the Lard. Side at 5 miles.    a
Small island in the middle of the river.    psd. an old Village
on the island at 3 miles    The high hills leave the river on the
〈Stard.〉 Ld. at 3 miles leaveing a high bottom on that Side for
6 miles.    whin the hills close on each Side
N. 40° W.


Miles to a point of high piney land on the Lard Side the Stard
Side high bold and rockey    here the rainge of low mountains
which run S. E & N W. Cross the Columbia leaveing a Valliee
of 74 miles on the river    passed a creek at 2 miles on the
Stard. Side about 20 yards wide. [EC: Kalama R. ]    an old vil-
lage a little below.    river wide and Deep.
    6th November 1805
N. 50° W.     1 Mile on the Lard Side, under Som high land    boald rockey
N. 60° W.     1 Mile under a boald rockey Shore on the Lard. Side opposit to
the upper point of an island Close under the Stard. Side the
high lands bordering the opposit Side.    river wide.
N 75° W.   12 Miles to a point of high land on the Lard. Side.    passed 2
〈Houses〉 Lodges in a Small bottom on the Lard. at 2 miles in a
bottom.    the high land leave the river on the Stard. Side for a
feiw miles back, and a long narrow Island is Situated Close
under the Stard. Shore behind which 2 Creeks falls in.    on
this Island near it upper point a verry remarkable Knob
of high land which we passed at 3 miles Passed an Island
near the Lard Side at 10 miles both of those islands thickly
N 80° W     2 Miles under a high Clift on the Lard. Side the lower point on
the long Island on Stard. as also one Smaller is opposit moun-
tains high and rugid thickly Covered with pine &c.
N. 88° W.     5 Miles to a high Clift a little below an old village on the 92
Stard. Side and opposit to a old Village on the Lard. point of a
handsom open extincive bottom.    passed an Island in the
middle of the river 3 miles long and one wide. a Small Island
Close under the Stard. Side below which the mountains bor-
der the Std. bank with rugid Clifts.
S. 45° W.     5 Miles under a clift of verry high land on the Stard. Side. wind
high a hed.
S. 50° W.     1 Mile under a high hill Shore bold and rockey clifts of rocks &c.
S. 75° W.     1 Mile under a high hill with a bold rockey Shore with a Steep
assent river 1 m
West     1 Mile under a high hill Steep assent    Encamped on the Stones
under the Stard. mountain    rained &c.
    7th November 1805
N. 82° W. 2 ½ Miles 〈on〉 along the Stard Side under the high hills. Steep as-
sent.    thick fog:
N. 60° W. 1 Miles along the Stard. Side under high hills very steep as-r
sent &c.
N. 45° W. 1 ½ Mile along the Stard. Side under high hills opposit the lower
point of a Island
West 2 Miles along the Stard. Shore under a high rockey hill. [EC:
Cathlamet (town) here
N. 45° W. 1 Mile to the head of an Island close under the Stard. Side
Seperated from the Stard Shore by a narrow Chanel which we
decended piloted by Indians &c.
N. 10° W. 15 Miles to a high Clift of rocks in a bend to the Stard. Side
passed a Village of War-ci-a-cum Nation 4 houses behind Sev-
eral marshey Islands, which is Scattered on the Stard. Side be-
hind which 2 Small Creeks falls in, I believe them to be Small
a large marshey Island [EC: Tenasillihee Island ] in the middle
of the river on which Some indians are camped river wide
passed an old village of 7 houses behind 2 Small Marshey Is-
lands under the high hills on the Stard Side at 12 miles of the
Same Nation of those above.
S. 45° W. 3 Miles to a point of high land on the Std. Side passing under
high hills. The river appears to widen into a kind of bay on
the Lard Side and crouded with Small islands.    the moun-
tains leaveing the river opsd. the last village. behind those Is-
lands a nation of Calt har-mar reside
S. 62° W. 5 Miles to a point on the Stard Side thro a Deep bend on the
Std. under a high mtn.
S. 70° W. 3 Miles to a point on the Stard Side passg. under a high moun-
tanious Countrey and Encamped on the rocks Stard. Side op-
posit a rock Situated ½ a mile in the river 50 feet high & 20
Diamuter Some high mountains to the S W. on the top of one
is Snow. Ocian in view! O! the joy.
    8th November 1805
S. 63° W 2 Miles to a point on the Stard. Side a high mountanious Coun-
trey Std. Several low islands in the Bay or deep bend opposit
towards the Lard Shore.
S. 60° W. 6 Miles to a point on the Stard Side    passed old vilgs. at 1 and 3
miles    entered a Deep bay or nitch about 5 miles deep coasted
around it    Severl. Creeks or inlets makeing into the land Std.
a old village in this nitch which we Call Shallow nitch and
land    Encamp at the Point.
    10th November 1805
S. 45° W. 10 Miles to a Point Distress [7] on the Std. side    passed a Deep
nitch and Six iner points on the Stard Side.    the Shore bold
and rockey.    mountains high on the Stard and thickly Cov-
ered with timber principally of the pine kind.    wind rose
Swills high    we encamped at 9 miles in a Small nitch 6 days.
rained &c. a deep bay on the Lard Sid opposit. The Countrey
high to the river above the bay on the opposit Side.
    16th November 1805
S 80° W. 2 Miles to a point of a low bottom on the Stard. Side (where we
Encamped 10 days in a narrow bottom Slashey in full view of
the Ocian)    passed a Small Creek at 1 mile an old Chin nook
Village of 36 houses    at 1½ miles a butifull Sand beech and
narrow bottom below the Creek on Stard.
S. 86° W. 11 Miles Computed to Cape Disapointment the enterance of this
great river into the great Pacific Ocian a large Sand bar off
Point Adams.    a Deep bay to the Stard. with 2 Creeks falling
into it and the Coast for a fiew Leagues to the N W Shall be
discribed here after.

Ocian 165 Miles from Quick Sand river.

Ocian 190 Miles from the first rapid.

Ocian 4142 Miles from the Mouth of Missouri R.


Saturday 16th Nov. 1805.    a clear cool morning. Several men went out a hunting.    we put our baggage out to dry.    towards evening the hunters all except one returned to Camp    had killd. four Deer and a number of geese brants and ducks.    a number of Savages Stayed with us all day.—


Sunday 16th.    This was a clear morning and the wind pretty high. We could see the waves, like small mountains, rolling out in the ocean, and pretty bad in the bay. [8]

We are now at the end of our voyage, which has been completely accomplished according to the intention of the expedition, the object of which was to discover a passage by the way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers to the Pacifi oceanc; notwithstanding the difficulties, privations and dangers, which we had to encounter, endure and surmount.

This morning 5 of the men went out to hunt; and about 3 o'clock all came in but one. They had killed 2 deer, 9 brants, 2 geese, 1 crane, and 3 ducks. The day being clear we got all our baggage dried, and in good order; and quietly rested until Capt. Lewis and his party should return. [9]


Saturday Novemr 16th    A clear cool morning.    several Indians staid near our Camp last night.    several of our party went out a hunting; We put out our baggage to dry.—

The hunters all returned but one, to our Camp.    they had killed 4 deer, & a number of Ducks, Geese & brants.    A Number of Indians staid with us all day.    We are now in plain view of the Pacific Ocean .    the waves rolling, & the surf roaring very loud.    on the opposite shore to us we discovered, the Tops of trees which we supposed to be on an Island laying a very great distance in the Ocean. [10]    We are now of opinion that we cannot go any further with our Canoes, [11] & think that we are at an end of our Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and as soon as discoveries necessary are made, that we shall return a short distance up the River & provide our Selves with Winter Quarters, & We suppose that we shall find a considerable Quantity of Game low down on the River.

1. Again asterisks precede the dateline for unknown reason. (back)
2. Both this entry and the Codex H courses and distances indicate a movement of two miles west on this day. However, Atlas map 82 and fig. 1 (in volume 6) show the campsite of November 15 as being the one at which the main party remained until November 25, and Biddle's entry for the day also indicates no movement. An "X" next to the usual camp symbol on that map may indicate a move. On Atlas map 89 the November 15 camp is labeled "Encamped the 15 16 17." See also Atlas map 90. Gass, Ordway, and Whitehouse do not refer to any movement on November 16. Coues (HLC), 2:709–10. (back)
3. The black brant is the western race of the brant; the speckled brant may be the eastern race, lighter than the western race and less common on the Pacific Coast. The white brant is the snow goose. Burroughs, 192–93; Holmgren, 28. (back)
4. A vertical line is drawn through this paragraph to here. (back)
5. Clark's course and distance table is from Codex H, pp. 132–48. The material covering October 18–November 1, 1805, is found after the codex entry of the latter date; the remainder is placed here at the concluding date where it is found in the notebook. See also the note at October 18, 1805. (back)
6. This is a subtotal at the bottom of p. 141 of Codex H. Other subtotals appear throughout the table. (back)
7. The word "Distress" appears to have been added to a blank space. (back)
8. Here Gass, or rather McKeehan, begins a new chapter, chapter 16, in the middle of the same day's entry, contrary to his usual procedure. The next paragraph is a general statement about the accomplishment of the objective of the expedition, but then the text returns to the daily affairs of November 16. (back)
9. In both his entries for this day Clark seems to say explicitly that the main party moved two miles on this day. Gass, like Ordway and Whitehouse, gives no indication of such a move. (back)
10. Depending on what Whitehouse considered the opposite shore, and perhaps on the visibility at the time, this could refer to Sand Island, in the mouth of the Columbia, or Point Adams on the other side of the river in Clatsop County, Oregon. (back)
11. In both his entries for this day Clark seems to say explicitly that the main party moved two miles on this day. Whitehouse, like Ordway and Gass, gives no indication of such a move. (back)