November 1, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

November 1, 1805


a verry cold morning wind from N. E and hard

Took equal altitudes of Sun
  h m  s     h m  s
A. M. 9 22 51       P M 3 12 21
  " 25   6     " 14 38
  " 27 24     " 16 47

altitude produced 36° 22' 15"

Set all hands packing the loading over th portage which is below the Grand Shutes and is 940 yards of bad way over rocks & on Slipery hill Sides    The Indians who came down in 2 Canoes last night packed their fish over a portage of 2½ miles to avoid a 2d Shute.    four of them took their canoes over the 1st portage and run the 2d Shute, Great numbers of Sea otters, [1] they are So Cautious that I with deficuelty got a Shute at one to day, which I must have killed but Could not get him as he Sunk

Lattitude: 45° 44' 3" North—

Cronomiter is 3 m 27 s too slow m. Time

1st Novr. P M

Observed time and distance of the moons western Limb from Antares ★ West—

  Time       Distance
  h    m      s    
P. M. 7      5    33   91°    50'   45"
  "       8    25     "      51    15
  "     10    53     "      52    00
  "     17     1     "      52    30
  "     18    59     "      52    30

The mountains is so high that no further observations can be made with this ★ observed time and distance of Moon's Western Limb from α Areitis ★ East

  Time       distance
  h    m    s    
P M. 7    29    34   58°    4'   30"
  "     33    12     "      4
  "     35    21     "      3    15
  "     37    16     "      2
  "     39      2     "      1
  "     40    35     "      0    15

We got all our Canoes and baggage below the Great Shute [2] 3 of the canoes being Leakey from injures recved in hauling them over the rocks, obliged us to delay to have them repaired    a bad rapid just below us three Indian canoes loaded with pounded fish for the &c. trade down the river arrived at the upper end of the portage this evening. I Can't lern whether those Indians trade with white people or Inds. below for the Beeds & copper, which they are So fond of—    They are nearly necked, prefuring beeds to anything—    Those Beeds they trafick with Indians Still higher up this river for Skins robes &c. &c. The Indians on those waters do not appear to be Sickly, Sore eyes are Common and maney have lost their eyes, Some one and, maney both, they have bad teeth, and the greater perpotion of them have worn their teeth down, maney into the gums, They are rather Small high Cheeks, women Small and homely, maney of them had Sweled legs, large about the knees,—owing to the position in which they Set on their hams, They are nearly necked only a piece of leather tied about their breech and a Small robe which generally comes to a little below their wastes and Scercely Sufficely large to cover arround them when confined— [3]    they are all fond of Clothes but more So of Beeds perticularly blue & white beeds. They are durty in the extreme both in their Coockery and in their houses.

Those at the last Village raise the beads [beds] about five feet from the earth—under which they Store their Provisions—    Their houses is about 33 feet to 50 feet Square, the dore of which is about 30 Inc. high and 16 Inches wide in this form [4] cut in a wide pine board    they have maney imeges Cut in wood, generally, in the figure of a man—    Those people are high with what they have to Sell, and Say the white people below Give them great Prices for what they Sell to them. Their nose are all Pierced, and the wear a white Shell maney of which are 2 Inch long pushed thro the nose—    all the women 〈are〉 have flat heads pressed to almost a point at top    The press the female childrens heads between 2 bords when young—untill they form the Skul as they wish it which is generally verry flat. This amongst those people is considered as a great mark of buty— and is practised in all the tribes we have passed on this river more or less.    men take more of the drugery off the women than is common with Indians—

Shape of a Hut Door, November 1, 1805, Elkskin-bound Journal
Missouri Historical Society

Names of Tribes [5]
E-neé-Shur    at the falls
E-chee-lute    at the lower whorl
Che-luck-it-te-guar    below
Chim-ná-pum    Nation above
qua-Ca-ha    near

A verry Cool morning wind hard from the N. E. The Indians who arrived last evining took their Canoes on ther Sholders and Carried them below the Great Shute, we Set about takeing our Small Canoe and all the baggage by land 940 yards of bad Slippery and rockey way    The Indians we discoverd took ther loading the whole length of the portage 2½ miles, to avoid a Second Shute which appears verry bad to pass, and thro' which they passed with their empty canoes. Great numbers of Sea Otters, they are So cautious that I with dificuelty got a Shot at one to day, which I must have killed, but could not get him as he Sunk

we got all our baggage over the Portage of 940 yards, after which we got the 4 large Canoes over by Slipping them over the rocks on poles placed across from one rock to another, and at Some places along partial Streams of the river.    in passing those canoes over the rocks &c. three of them recived injuries which obliged us to delay to have them repared.

Great Rapids (Cascades) of the Columbia River, Washington
and Oregon, October 30–November 2, 1805, Codex H, p. 4
(American Philosophical Society library,
used with permission.)

Great Rapids (Cascades) of the Columbia River, Washington
and Oregon, October 30–November 2, 1805, Codex H, p. 4
Missouri Historical Society

Several Indian Canoes arrived at the head of the portage, Some of the men accompanied by those from the village came down to Smoke with us, they appear to Speak the Same language with a little different axcent [6]

I visited the Indian 〈Lodge〉 Village found that the Construction of the houses Similar to those abov described, with this difference only that they are larger Say from 35 to 50 feet by 30 feet, raised about 5 feet above the earth, and nearly as much below    The Dores in the Same form and Size cut in the wide post which Supports one end of the ridge pole and which is carved and painted with different figures & Hieroglyphics    Those people gave me to eate nuts berries & a little dried fish, and Sold me a hat of ther own taste without a brim, and baskets in which they hold their water—    Their beads are raised about 4 ½ feet, under which they Store away their dried fish, between the part on which they lie and the back wall they Store away their roots burries nuts and valuable articles on mats, which are Spread also around the fire place which is Sunk about one foot lower than the bottom flore of the house, this fire place is about 8 feet long and Six feet wide Secured with a fraim    those houses are calculated for 4, 5 & 6 families, each familey haveing a nice painted ladder to assend up to their beads. I Saw in those houses Several wooden Images all cut in imitation of men, but differently fasioned and placed in the most conspicious parts of the houses, probably as an orniment    I cannot lern certainly as to the traffick those Inds. carry on below, if white people or the indians who trade with the Whites who are either Settled or visit the mouth of this river. I believe mostly with the latter as their knowledge of the white people appears to be verry imperfect, and the articles which they appear to trade mostly i e' Pounded fish, Beargrass, and roots; cannot be an object of comerce with furin merchants—    however they git in return for those articles Blue and white beeds copper Tea Kittles, brass arm bands, some Scarlet and blue robes and a fiew articles of old clothes, they prefer beeds to any thing and will part with the last mouthfull or articles of clothing they have for a fiew of those beeds, those beeds the trafick with Indians Still higher up this river for roabs, Skins, cha-pel-el bread, [7] beargrass &c. who in their turn trafick with those under the rockey mountains for Beargrass, 〈guarmashPashico roots & robes &c.

The nativs of the waters of the Columbia appear helthy, Some have tumers on different parts of their bodies, and Sore and weak Eyes are common, maney have lost their Sight entirely great numbers with one eye out and frequently the other verry weak; This misfortune I must again asscribe to the water &c.    They have bad teeth, which is not common with indians, maney have worn their teeth down and Some quite into their gums, this I cannot Satisfactorily account for it, do ascribe it in some measure to their method of eateing, their food, roots pertiularly, which they make use of as they are taken out of the earth frequently nearly covered with Sand, I have not Seen any of their long roots offered for Sale clear of Sand. [8] They are rether below the Common Size high cheeks womin Small and homely, and have Swelled legs and thighs, and their knees remarkably large which I ascribe to the method in which they Sit on their hams—go nearly necked wareing only a piece of leather tied about their breast which falls down nearly as low as the waste, a Small roabe about 3 feet Square, and a piece of leather tied about their breach, They [X: womin] have all flat heads in this quarter 〈both men and women,〉 They are tirty in the extream, both in their person and cooking, ware their hare loose hanging in every direction. They asc high prices for what they Sell and Say that the white people below give great prices for every thing &c.

The noses are all pierced and when they are dressed they have a long tapered piece of white shell or wampum 〈pushed〉 put through the nose. Those Shells are about 2 inches in length. I observed in maney of the villeages which I have passed, the heads of the female children in the press for the purpose of compressing their heads in their infancy into a certain form, between two boards [9]

Course Distance & Remarks Decending the Columbia River
from the Lewis's River in Latd. 46° 15' 13 9/10" N.
to the Great Pacific Ocian—estimated [10]
  miles 18th October 1805.
S 55° E   12 To a bend on the Lard side opposite a verry bad rapid
opposit to a lower point of a large Island on the Stard.
Side & Several Small Islds. in the river.    passed a Island
in the mouth of the Ki moo e nim.    one in the middle of
the river 3 miles long at 8 miles; and one a little below on
which was 9 mat Lodges of Indians drying fish 2 Lodges
on Std. at the rapid.
S 20° E     2 ½ Miles to 2 Lodges of Indians on a Small Island near the
Stard. point.
S 45° E     1 ½ Miles to the mouth of a Brook under a high hill on the
Lard. Side, here the river enters a high range of hills
about 200 feet rugid black rocks makeing out into the
river from each Side.
S. 12° W. [11]     4 Miles to a point of rocks in a Lard. Bend    passed 2
Small Islands one on each side and one in the middle at
2 miles at the uppr. point 2 Lodges of Indians drying
fish opsd. a rapid, passed 9 Lodges of Indians drying
fish on an Island Close under the Stard. Side, one mile
lower 5 Lodges of Indians drying fish on the Same Is-
land. 〈no bottom〉    Encamped on the Lard Side
    19th of October 1805.
S. 45° W.   14 Miles to a rock on the Lard. Shore resembling a hat at a
rapid at the lower point of an Island in the middle of the
river on which there is 7 Lodges of nativs drying fish,
and opposit the head of an Isld. near the Std. side on
which is 5 Lodges of nativs drying fish    at 8 miles
passed an Island close to the Lard Shore 6 miles long op-
posit the Lower point of this long Island is a Smal Island
on which is 5 Lodies deserted at present.    passed a
Stard point at 4 miles.
S 80° W.     7 miles to a point of rocks in a Stard. Bend    passed the
Island near the Stard. Side at 1 mile (passed a verry bad
rapid) above the Expiration of the Course    passed
rapid 2 miles long with Sevl. Small Islands in it low lands
on Lard Side, See 2 mountains S W. & W. Covered with
Snow. This rapid has large banks of Muscle Shells.
S 70° W.   12 Miles to a Small Island on the Lard Side at some willows
passed 20 Lodges of Indians drying fish Scattered on
the Stard. Bank in a vally.    haveing passed the high
Countrey on the Stard. at ½ a mile.    passed a Small
rapid at 11 miles.
S. 45° W.     3 Miles to Some willow trees below an Island close under
the Lard. Side, opposit to 24 Lodges of nativs drying fish
on the Stard. Side and on a Small Island in the middle of
the river. Countrey low on each Side. This nation above
was much allarmed at our approach.    we encamped on
the Lard. Side.
    20th October 1805
West     6 Miles to a Stard. bend at the head of a rapid    passed 3
Indian Lodges on Lard. deserted.
S. 20° W.   10 Miles to a Lard. bend opposit a large Island on the
Stard. Side    passed rocky bad rapid with a chain of
rocks from the Stard Side, & Several Small Islands near
the Lard. side    Great number of Pelicans at this rapid
and black comerant 4 Lodges of Indians fishing on an
Island close to the Stard. Side.
S 60° W.     8 Miles to the Comencement of a high land on the Stard.
Side.    passed 3 Islands nearly opposit to each other 2
on the Stard. large one on the Lard Small 17 Lodges of
Indians fishing on those 3 Islands, a vault at the upper
point of the 1st. Island.    passed a bad rapid at the lower
point of a Small Island at 7½ miles on which 4 Lodges of
nativs drying fish.
S. 45° W.   18 Miles to a point of highland in the Std. bend    passed a
large Island in the middle of the river at 8 miles below
which we passed a Lard. point 5 Small Islands on the
lard. and 5 on the Stard. Sides, and one Small one in the
middle of the river at 16 miles.    passed a Small rapid.
    21st October 1805
South     3 Miles to a Larboard bend of high land.
S. 55° W.   17 Miles to a Lard Bend below a rapid and high ruged
rocks.    passed a Small Island at 2½ miles; one at 4 miles
in the middle of the river below Some Swift water 8
Lodges of Indians on the Stard Side drying fish.    (we
Brackfast &c.)    passed a rapid at 10 miles below a Stard
pt. 2 Lodges on Std.    passed 5 Lodges of nativs drying
fish on the Stard Side above the lower rapid, opsd. Som
rocks out in the river from both sides.
N. 45° W.     4 Miles to a Stard. Bend passing the lower point of an Is-
land at 1 mile 2 Lodges of nativs on the Stard Shore dry-
ing fish.    the rocks on the Lard. appear to have Sliped
into the river from the Clifts—    at 2 miles passed a very
bad rockey rapid dificuelt and Crooked, eminc rocks in
it 2 Lodges of nativs below on the Stard. Side. Some fiew
low pine on the tops of the hills.
S 60° W.

river ☞
    5 Miles to be the Stard. Bend    passed many rugid black
rocks in different parts of the river.    a bad rapid at 2
miles, the river narrow at the expiration of this course
a river falls in on the Lard Side R de page 40 yards wide.
Islands of rocks in every direction
S. 52° W.   13 Miles to the upper point of a rock Isld. 80 feet high at a
rapid passed the little river rapid and through narrow
Chanels between hugh large rocks.    4 Lodges of Inds.
on Stard. Side opposit (Encamped at) 5 Lodges of In-
dians below a Small Island four miles below the little
river [12]    at 10 miles passed rapid large rocks nearly
across the river.    6 Lodges of Indians drying fish on the
Std. Side    at 12 miles passed a bad rapid.    5 Lodges of
nativs on Std. 20 Stacks of fish and Inds. gigging
    22nd October 1805
S. 30° W.     3 Miles to the Mouth of To war ne hi ooks [13] River in a Lard
Bend 200 yards wide and very rapid and contains a
great qty of water rapid ¼ of a mile up this river which is
three long 3 Sand Islands in the mouth of this river
  144 Miles From Lewis's river [14]
West     4 Miles to a bend on the Stard Side    passed the rock Is-
land at 2 miles 8 Lodges on its Lower point, at 3 miles 10
Lodges on the Stard. Main Shore    at the end of this
course is 6 Lodges of nativs opposit is the lower point of
a large Island near the Lard Side from the mouth of
S. 45° W.     2 Miles to a point of Sand on the Stard. side opposit to the
center of the great Falls    passed 17 Lodges scattered on
The Stard Bank (Portage of 1200 yards on the Stard
Side over rock & sand)
Falls     6 Miles from Clarks River
    24th October 1805
West     2 Miles passing a Lard. Point of Sand, and a Stard. point.
3 lodges above a Deep bend to the Stard. to a point of
high rocks at the enterance of a narrow Chanel. Lodges
on the Stard Side at the foot of the rock
S. 70° W.     2 Miles to a rock Island in the middle of the river at a bad
rapid, passed through the little narrows ¼ of a mile long
& 45 yards wide, bad whorly boils & Sucks.    a Lodge be-
low where the river widens to about 200 yds
S. 50° W.     2 Miles to a high rugid rock at the mouth of the Great nar-
rows a Deep bend to the Stard. Side on which is a village
of 21 worm comfortable houes    Passed a large rock in
the middle of the river
Grt. Narrows     6 Miles from the Great Falls
    25th October 1805
S. 34° W.     3 Miles through a Narrow Swift bad Chanel from 50 to
100 yards in width, one verry bad place in this Chanel at
½ mile maney bad whorls and Sucks, a rock which Sepe-
rates The Chanel at 2½ miles the Current running
aginst the upper point, to the enterance of a Deep bend
to the Stard. Side (made a portage of ½ a mile below the
1st bad place in the Chanel) one of the Canoes filled,
and afterwards run against a rock in the Chanel.
S. 20° W.     2 Miles to a high rock on the Lard Side    passed through a
narrow Chanel on The Stard. of a large rock which di-
vides the Chanel at 1 mile. (Saw a Chief)
N. 60° W.     1 Mile to a high rock in a Stard. Bend    passed a Deep
bason on the Lard Side and between rugid rocks. Still
S. 60° W.     4 Miles to the mouth of a large Creek in the Lard Bend, a
high point of rocks (on which we Camped) and near
Some Timbered bottom of white oake and pine river
½ a mile wide and Current jintle.
    28th October 1805
N. 50° W.     2 Miles to a nitch in the Lard. Bend    a Clift of rocks on
each Side about 90 feet high on which there is Some fiew
N. 10° W.     2 Miles to the Chel-luck-it-te-quar Village of Eight houes on
the Stard Side under Some high rocks, a Small Creek
falls in on the Lard Side.
North     1 Mile to a rock island on the Stard Side opposit to which
the wind obliged us to come to the Lard. side is a nitch
above a point of high rocks where we Stayed all night.
rained &c. &c.
    29th October 1805
N. 55° W.     4 Miles to a Lard point    passed a Brook on Lard.

    8 Miles to a rock Island near the middle of the river at 1
mile is a friendly Village of 7 houses of the Chil luck it te
Nation and the residance of their great Chief—    at
5 miles passed the mouth of a River which we call Cata-
river 60 yards wide on the Std. side below the mouth
of which is a Village of 11 houses of the Chil luck it te quar
S. 60° W.     5 Miles to a rock Island in a Lard Bend, passd. 2 rocks in
the river    passed 2 houses on the Std. side at 1 mile;
and 2 houses at 4 miles on the Stard. Side.
S. 80° W.

river ☞
    6 Miles to 4 houses in a point of Timber bottom on the
lard. Side above the enterance of a 〈large〉 river 40 yard
wide    we call river La biache    a bottom on the Stard.
Side in which there is scattered on the bank 14 Houses
of Indians (The falls mountain covered with Snow is
S. 70° W.     6 Miles to a high clift of rocks in a in Stard. bend passing a
large Sand bar from the Lard. for 4 miles.    a large
Creek 28 yards wide at 1 mile I call Canoe Creek, a
butifull Spring below. A Small Stream fall over rocks of
100 feet Lard Side.    at 5 miles passed 4 Indian Houses
in a bottom on the Lard Side.
S. 56° W.     6 Miles to a point of a timbered bottom on the lard. Side.
passed a Stard. point at 2 miles, here the mountains are
high and those on the Lard. has Snow on them.    at 3
miles is 3 houses of Indians on the Star Side (where we
    30th of October 1805
S 70° W.     3 Miles to a point of rocks on the Stard. Side    passed a
number of Stumps at Some distance in the water    cur-
rent Still 1 mile pr. hour
S. 74° W.     2 Miles to a point of a timbered bottom on the Stard. Side.
Stumps & rocks out in the water

river ☞
    4 Mile to the mouth of a river on the Std. side about 60
yards wide maney large rocks promiscuisly in the river
both above and below a large Sand bar in the middle of
the river. This river we Call Cruzats River. [15]
S. 45° W.     2 Miles to a large rock in the river    passed Several rocks
and a large Sand bar out in the river. High mountains
on each side rough and covered with a very thick groth
of Pine Cedar Cotton & Oake
S. 30° W.     4 Miles to a Small Island in the head of the grand Shoote
near the Stard. Side (on which we Encamped) passed
maney large rocks in the river at 2½ miles passed a large
Creek on the Stard. Side with a Small Island in the mouth
passed on the inner side of 3 Islands near the Stard. Side
a little below the Creek.    one Island on the Lard Side
above.    at 3¾ miles is 8 large worm houses on the Stard
Side back of which is houses of [blank] Nation
Gt. Shoots   65 Miles
    1st November 1805
S. 30d E     1 Mile to a Lard Bend    passed the Grand Shoote which is
¼ of a mile long the water confined with in 150 yds.
passing over imince Stones with tremendious force &
low mountain Slipping in on the Stard Side high on the
Lard Side    great numbers of Sea otters.
S 30° W.     1 Mile to a Lard Bend passing Several rocks in the river.
a verry bad rapid at ¾ of a mile the water being con-
fined between large rocks maney of which is just under
water, opposit to this rapid on an ellivated Situation
Stard. near a pond in an Old Village of 8 large houses
partly taken down and avacuated.
S. 45° W.     2 Miles to a high rock the upper point of a large Island
near the Lard Shore passed many large rocks against
which the water passed with great force at 1 miles passed
a house on the Stard. Side a little below the end of the
portage a Short distance.    below this house is 8 vaults
also on the Stard. Side.
S 68d W.     3 Miles to a large black rock in a Std. Bend at the foot of a
sast rapid opposit the lower end of the Island on the
Lard. Side, passing a village of 4 large houses at 1 ½
miles an extensive Stoney bottom on the Stard. Side, the
mounts, on the Lard Side high and ruged. passing maney
large rocks against which the water beats with great
Last rapid     7 Miles from the Grand Shute.

Friday 1st November 1805.—    a fair morning.    the wind high from the N. E. and cold.    we carried all our baggage past the portage    a number of Indians with canoe loads of pounded Sammon are going down the River tradeing.    they are carrying their loads past the portage with us & their canoes also.    we then took down the rest of the canoes.    got them all Safe below the big Shoote and Camped [16] their on the Stard. Side.


Friday 1st Nov. 1805.    We had a cool frosty morning. We carried down our baggage before breakfast as we could not go into the water, without uneasiness on account of the cold. In the forenoon we took down the other two canoes. A number of the natives with 4 canoes joined us here from above. Their canoes were loaded with pounded salmon, which they were taking down the river to barter for beads and other articles.


Friday 1st Nov. 1805.    a clear morning.    the wind high from the N. E. and cold.    So we carryed all our baggage past the portage    the Indians carried their Baggage and canoes past the portage.    we drew out one of the canoes to repair it.    then went at tak[ing] down the other two large canoes, and th[e] Small one.    towards evening we got all Saf[e] below the big rapids and Camped.    three canoes arived at the head of the rapids a nomber of men and women on board of them.    they are loaded with pounded fish and dry Sammon for trade.    they Sign to that they are going down to the white traders to trade their fish for blue Beeds

Friday Novemr. 1st    A Clear morning, the Wind high from the No. East & cold.    We set off and carried all our baggage below the Portage.    The Indians that were at our Camp last night, also carried their Canoes & loading below the portage.    We hawled out the remainder of our Canoes, one of which we repaired, and towards evening we got them all down below the big Rapids, and Encamped.    During the time we were at the head of the Rapid, three Canoes also arrived there.    These Canoes had on board of them, pounded Salmon for to Trade; & the Indian Men & women that was on board of them, made signs to us, that they were going down the River, in order to trade away their pounded fish for Blue beads &ca. with the Indians who resided on the Sea Coast.—

1. Again, probably a seal rather than a sea otter; see above, October 23, 1805. (back)
2. Camp was in Skamania County, Washington, above Bonneville Dam and near the present communities of Fort Rains and North Bonneville. The area of the "Great Rapids" is shown on Clark's detailed sketch map in Codex H, p. 4, and on a nearly identical version in Voorhis No. 4. Atlas maps 79, 88. (back)
3. On this page and part of the preceding page in the Elkskin-bound Journal is a sketch map. The text was apparently added later as the words are worked in around the map to some degree. See note at entry of October 18, 1805. (back)
4. A figure, showing the door shape, appears at this point in the text of the Elkskin-bound Journal. (back)
5. This list is inserted at the top and bottom of the page in the Elkskin-bound Journal, upside down to the rest of the text. The heading is written over "S. 55° W." (back)
6. Clark's astronomical table inserted here in Codex H, p. 93, was probably copied from the Elkskin-bound Journal; no significant differences are apparent and it is not printed here. (back)
7. "Cha-pel-el" is the Chinookan term a-sáblal, "bread" (etymology obscure); the term in Chinook jargon is saplíl. It is cous, Lomatium cous (Wats.) Coult. & Rose, then new to science. It was an important foodstuff in this region and eastward. On the return trip in 1806 cous would also become a useful food source for the party. Cutright (LCPN), 283–84, 288–89, 370, 373; Hitchcock et al., 3:548–49. (back)
8. A vertical line is drawn through this passage about the roots, perhaps by Biddle, but not in his usual red ink. (back)
9. Three-quarters of the page in Codex H, p. 97, is blank following this entry. (back)
10. See note at October 18, 1805. The words "Lewis's River" appear to have been substituted for some erased words. (back)
11. The numeral "20" to the side of this course represents the mileage accumulation for October 18. (back)
12. Coues underlined the words "Encamped at" above and he has marked off the passage at this point and labeled it "Oct. 22d." He also has written, "only 4 miles of this course on Oct. 21, making 33 miles altogether." All the writing was done in pencil. Coues is correct; see n. 1 at entry of October 21, 1805. The number "140" to the side of this course is an accumulative figure to this point. (back)
13. The name appears to have been added to a blank space as does the term "Clarks" below. They are both the same stream, today's Deschutes River. See above, October 22. (back)
14. The total of "144" is incorrect based on calculating Clark's figures as given here. The word "Lewis's" appears to have been substituted for some erased word. (back)
15. "Cruzats" appears to have been substituted for some erased words. (back)
16. In Skamania County, Washington, above Bonneville Dam and near the communities of Fort Rains and North Bonneville. (back)