October 21, 1805
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October 21, 1805


a verry Cold morning    we Set out early    wind from the S W.    we Could not Cook brakfast before we embarked as usial for the want of wood or Something to burn.—

South   3 miles to a Lard Bend
S 55° W. 17 miles to a Lard Bend below a bad rapid high ruged rock
Passed a Small Island at 2½ miles one at 4 miles, in th middle of
the river, at Smome Swift water    an Indn Camp of 8 Lodges
on the Std. Side opsd. th Lower point where we Brackfast,
and bought Some fine fish & Pounded rotes.    people well
disposed    passed a rapid at 10 miles. Rocks out in the water
passed a Stard. point & a Strd. point    at 15 [miles] passed 5
Lodges of Indians, & 2 Lodges Some distance above on Std.
N. 45° W.   4 miles to a Stard. bend    passd. the lower pt. of the Isd. at 1
mile and 2 Lodges of fishers below on the Stard Side, the
rocks on th Lard. appear as if Sliped from the Clifts under
which they are    passed emence rocks in differt. parts of the
river which were large and too noumerous to notice. Fowl of
all kinds more plentiful than above    passed a verry bad rapid
at 2 miles, this rapid is Crouded with Islands of bad rocks di-
ficuelt & crooked passage    2 Lodges of Indians below on Std.
Side. I saw Some fiew Small Pine on the tops of the high hills
and bushes in the hollers
S. 60° W.   5 miles to the Stard. Bend.    passed maney ruged black rocks in
diffierent parts of the river, and a bad rapid at 2 miles & river
narrow    Several Canoes loaded with Indians ( Pierce noses )
came to See us—    〈To〉 at the expiration of this course a river
falls in on the Lard. 40 yds. wide Islands of rocks in every di-
rection in the river & rapids
S. 52° W. 13 miles to upr. point of a rocky Island 80 feet high    a rapid
above    passed the little river rapid thro narrow channels be-
tween the rocks    4 Lodges of Indians on the Stard. Side op-
posit, a round toped mountain imediately in front and is the
one we have been going towards & which bore S. W. from the
2d course below the Forks—    passed the lower point of an
Island on the Stard. at 2 miles    landed at 5 Lodges of Pierced
Indians at 4 miles where we encamped and purchased
a little wood to boil our Dogs & fish, those Indians are the
〈inhabitents〉 relations of the falls below, fortunately for us the
night was worm.

22d Octr. Course Continued [1]

fine water for 7 miles    passed a rapid of rocks nearly across above which at 6 miles    passed 6 Lodges Std., at 9 miles    passed a Bad rapid, & Lodges of Indians on Std. Side    20 piles [one word illegible] of fish on an Island drying, Several Indians in Canoes fishing in Canos & gigs &c.

Columbia River near Mouth of Deschutes River, Washington
and Oregon, ca. October 21, 1805, Elkskin-bound Journal
Missouri Historical Society

Collins made Some excellent beer of the Pasheco quar mash bread of roots which was verry good    obliged to purchase wood at a high rate. [2]


A verry cool morning wind from the S. W.    we Set out verry early and proceeded on, last night we could not Collect more dry willows the only fuel, than was barely Suffient to cook Supper, and not a Sufficency to cook brackfast this morning, passd. a Small Island at 5½ miles a large one 8 miles in the middle of the river, Some rapid water at the head and Eight Lodges of nativs opposit its Lower point on the Stard. Side, we came too at those lodges, bought some wood and brackfast. Those people recived us with great kindness, and examined us with much attention, their employments custom Dress and appearance Similar to those above; Speak the same language, [3] here we Saw two Scarlet and a blue cloth blanket, also a Salors Jacket    the Dress of the men of this tribe only a Short robe of Deer or Goat Skins, and that of the womn is a Short piece of Dressd Skin which fall from the neck So as to Cover the front of the body as low as the waste, a Short robe, which is of one Deer or antilope Skin, and a flap, around their waste and Drawn tite between their legs as before described, their orniments are but fiew, and worn as those above.

we got from those people a fiew pounded rotes [NB: roots] fish and Acorns of the white oake, those Acorns they make use of as food [NB: raw & roasted], and inform us they precure them of the nativs who live near the falls below which place they all discribe by the term Timm [4]    at 2 miles lower passed a rapid, large rocks Stringing into the river of large Size, [5] opposit to this rapid on the Stard. Shore is Situated two Lodges of the nativs drying fish    here we halted a fiew minits to examine the rapid before we entered it which was our constant Custom, and at all that was verry dangerous put out all who could not Swim to walk around, after passing this rapid we proceeded on passed anoothe rapid at 5 miles lower down, above this rapid on 〈the Stard. Side〉 five Lodges of Indians fishing &c. [6]    above this rapid maney large rocks on each Side at Some distance from Shore, one mile passed an Island Close to the Stard. Side, below which is two Lodge of nativs, a little below is a bad rapid which is bad crouded with hugh rocks Scattered in every Direction which renders the pasage verry Difficuelt    a little above this rapid on the Lard. Side emence piles of rocks appears as if Sliped from the Clifts under which they lay passed great number of rocks in every direction Scattered in the river    5 Lodges a little below on the Stard. Side, and one lodge on an Island near the Stard. Shore opposit to which is a verry bad rapid, thro which we found much dificuelty in passing, the river is Crouded with rocks in every direction, after Passing this dificult rapid to the mouth of a Small river on the Larboard Side 40 yards wide descharges but little water at this time, and appears to take its Sourse in the Open plains to the S. E. [7]    from this place I proceved Some fiew Small pines on the tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollars.    imediately above & below this little river comences a rapid which is crouded with large rocks in every direction, the pasage both crooked and dificuelt, we halted at a Lodge to examine those noumerous islands of rock which apd. to extend maney miles below,—. great numbs. of Indians came in canoes to View us at this place, after passing this rapid which we accomplished without loss; 〈we passed〉 winding through between the hugh rocks for about 2 miles—.    (from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which the Indians inform me is not far to the left of the great falls; this I call the Timm or falls mountain it is high and the top is covered with Snow) [8]    imediately below the last rapids there is four Lodges of Indians on the Stard. Side, proceeded on about two miles lower and landed and encamped near five Lodges of nativs, drying fish    those are the relations of those at the Great falls, they are pore and have but little wood which they bring up the river from the falls as they Say, we purchasd a little wood to cook our Dog meat and fish; those people did not recive us at first with the same cordiality of those above, they appeare to be the Same nation Speak the Same language with a little curruption of maney words    Dress and fish in the Same way, [9] all of whome have pierced noses and the men when Dressed ware a long taper'd piece of Shell or beed put through the nose— [10]    this part of the river is furnished with fine Springs which either rise high up the Sides of the hills or 〈out〉 on the bottom near the river and run into the river.    the hills are high and rugid a fiew scattering trees to be Seen on them either Small pine or Scrubey white oke.

The probable reason of the Indians residing on the Stard. Side of this as well as the waters of Lewis's [11] River is their fear of the Snake Indians who reside, as they nativs Say on a great river to the South, [12] and are at war with those tribes, 〈our to〉 one of the Old Chiefs who accompanies us pointed out a place on the lard. Side where they had a great battle, not maney years ago, in which maney were killed on both Sides—, one of our party J. Collins presented us with Some verry good beer made of the Pa-shi-co-quar-mash bread, which bread is the remains of what was laid in as [X: a part of our] Stores of Provisions, at the first flat heads or Cho-pun-nish Nation at the head of the Kosskoske river which by being frequently wet molded & Sowered &c.    we made 33 miles to day. [13]


Monday 21st Oct. 1805.    a clear cold morning.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on as usal    we then halted at an Indian village where we bought a little wood and cooked breakfast.    bought Some pounded Sammon from the natives, and Some white root cakes which is verry good.    we Saw among them a number of fisher and rackoon Skins. [14] Some otter Skins [15] also.    these Savages gave us any thing we asked them for, by our giving them any Small article as we pleased, as if they were in fear of us.    we proceeded on    passed River hills and cliffs of rocks on each side.    passed over a number of bad rockey rapids where the River is nearly filled with high dark couloured rocks    the water divided in narrow deep channels, bad whorl pools.    passed several Islands and fishing camps. Saw a great quantity of pounded Sammon Stacked up on the Shores.    we Saw a fiew Scattering pine on the hills.    we came about 32 miles this day and Camped at some Indian lodges close under high clifts of rocks on the Stard Side    a handsome Spring flowed out of the clifts.    these Savages have a fiew Elk and Deer Skins dressed with the hair on which they wear for covering.    they have also a fiew blue cloth blankets &C—


Monday 21st.    We continued our voyage at an early hour, and had a fine morning. At 10, we came to the lodges of some of the natives, [16] and halted with them about 2 hours. Here we got some bread, made of a small white root, [17] which grows in this part of the country. We saw among them some small robes made of the skins of grey squirrels, [18] some racoon skins, and acorns, [19] which are signs of a timbered country not far distant. Having proceeded on again, we passed several more lodges of Indians; and through two very rocky rapid parts of the river with great difficulty. We went 32 miles and encamped at some Indian lodges, where we procured wood from the natives to cook with.


Monday 21st Oct. 1805. [20]    a clear cold morning.    we Set out eairly and proceeded on as usal, untill about 8 oClock at which time we halted at an Indian Camp where we bought Some wood and cooked breakfast.    bought Some pounded fish from the Natives and Some roots bread which was made up in cakes in form of ginger bread and eat verry well.    Saw a nomber of Rackoon Skins also otter and fisher Skins &c.    they gave us any thing we asked for by our giving any Small article we pleased.    we proceeded on    passed clifts of rocks and River hills on each Side    passed over Several verry bad rockey rapids, where the River was nearly filled with high rocks of a dark coulour, and the water divided in narrow deep channels, where we ran through verry fast    high waves and whorl pools below.    passd. Several Islands and fishing Camps where the natives had a large quantity of pounded fish the best of their Sammon pounded up and put up in Small Stacks along the Shore for winter, & cover them with Straw and pile the Stone around them.    the Solid clifts continue on each Side.    Saw a little Scattering pine timber on the hills on each Side of the River.    Some places the rocks are high and Steep.    we went about 32 miles and Camped at Some Indian Camps on the Stard. Side.    a handsom Spring run from a clift of rocks near our Camp.    we bought Some wood from the Natives to cook with    these natives appeer to be mostly covd. in deer and Elk Some rabit & Squerrel Skins.    they have Some blew Cloth blankets &.    we passed a Small River [21] which came in on the Lard. Side

Monday October 21st    A clear cold morning.    We set out early, and proceeded on as usual, untill about 8 oClock A. M. when we halted at an Indian Camp, lying on the River side, & bought some wood, with which we cooked breakfast, We also purchased from those Indians some pounded fish, and root bread, made up in the form of ginger bread, which eat very well.    We also saw among these Indians, Raccoon, Otter, fisher & a number of other kinds of small Skins, These Indians behaved very kind to us, they gave us any article that we asked for which they had among them, by our giving them any small article ever so trifling we pleased; & seemed very well pleased with us.    We proceeded on down the River, & passed Clifts of rocks, & hills, which lay near the river on both sides of it.    We also passed over several very bad rockey rapids, where the River was nearly filled with Rocks, which were high & of a dark Colour, & the Water divided into narrow Channels.    We ran with our Canoes through those Channels very fast, the Waves at that place run high, & whirl pools lay below the Rocks, which made it extreamly dangerous for us to pass.—    We continued on, and passed several Islands & fishing Camps, where the natives had large Quantities of pounded fish.    The Natives dry & pound the best of their fish which they put up in small stacks, along the River Shores for winter, & cover them over with Straw and pile Stones up high round them.—    The Solid clifts of rocks continue along each side of the River.    We saw some scattering pine trees growing on the hills on both sides of the River, & the Rocks are steep & high—    We passed a small River which lay on the South side of the River which we called Baptiste River &    We came about 32 Miles this day & encamped near some Indian Camps, which were Inhabited by a number of Indians; lying on the North side of the River.    We found near to our Camp, a handsome spring of water which ran from under some Clifts of rocks.    We purchased from those Indians some wood to Cook with.    These Natives were chiefly 〈covered〉 Cloathed with deer & Elk skins, which they dress into leather.    They had also some Rabbit, & squirrel skins among them.—    We also saw with them blue Cloth & blankets, Our Course continues nearly West.

1. Here in the Elkskin-bound Journal Clark gives the first course of the next day. There is also the number "33" by the total of "42" representing the actual miles traveled that day, that is, four instead of thirteen on the last course. (back)
2. Above this sentence in the Elkskin-bound Journal is a sketch map showing the camp of October 21, 1805, and the return camp of April 21, 1806 (misidentified as April 23). The entrances of the John Day and Deschutes rivers are also shown, but the streams are not named. (back)
3. Referred to as "Met-cow-wes" on Atlas map 77 and in entries on the return journey on April 24, 1806, they may have been the Methows, although these spoke a Salishan language, not the Shahaptian of the people upstream. They lived in Klickitat County, Washington, between the present towns of Roosevelt and Blalock. Hodge, 1:850. The Shahaptian term mɨ́tx̣aw designates a Salish-speaking group closely associated with the Columbia and Okanogan rivers. (back)
4. The Chiookan term tḿm is an onomatopoeic particle, derived from the Chinook jargon, meaning "(river) falls." (back)
5. The rocks are more resistant parts of the middle Miocene Grande Ronde Basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum Basalt, both part of the Columbia River Basalt Group. (back)
6. These two groups of lodges are located near the mouth of present Rock Creek, shown entering from the north in the upper right hand corner of Atlas map 77. This was the location of a Umatilla village named kami'l\pu ("opening through the canyon where light penetrates"). The location marked the downriver boundary of the Umatilla Indians where over one hundred persons lived. It was a popular area because wood was plentiful. Archaeological work has been extensive on the opposite (Oregon) shore in this area. Ray (NVCB), 151; Dumond & Minor. (back)
7. The John Day River, marking the boundary between Gilliam and Sherman counties, Oregon. It is "River de Page" on fig. 20 in volume 5 and "River La Page" on Atlas map 77, after expedition member Jean Baptiste Lepage. (back)
8. Mt. Hood; see above, October 18, 1805. (back)
9. "Wah-how pum" on Atlas map 77. A small Shahaptian-language group living near the mouth of Rock Creek, in Klickitat County. Hodge, 2:890. (back)
10. The shell belongs to a marine mollusk of the genus Dentalium, resembling a miniature elephant tusk, much used by tribes as far east as the Great Plains for decoration. Cutright (LCPN), 229. (back)
11. The phrase "waters of Lewis's" appears to have been substituted for some erased words. (back)
12. Perhaps the Deschutes River or John Day River; these "Snakes" are probably Northern Paiutes. Ray & Lurie, 361–65; Murdock. (back)
13. Camp was in Klickitat County, in the vicinity of the present John Day Dam. Atlas map 77. (back)
14. Fisher, Martes pennanti, and raccoon, Procyon lotor. (back)
15. Perhaps the river otter, but notice confusion about the sea otter and harbor seal in the next entry. (back)
16. Perhaps Methow Indians, living in Klickitat County, Washington, between Roosevelt and Blalock. (back)
17. Probably camas. (back)
18. Perhaps western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus. (back)
19. Clark reports that they were acorns of the Oregon white oak, Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook. (back)
20. Above the date is the word "this." (back)
21. John Day River, marking the boundaries of Gilliam and Sherman counties, Oregon. It was named "River La Page" by the party for member Jean Baptiste Lepage. This last sentence appears to be squeezed in between entries. (back)