November 19, 1805
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November 19, 1805


began to rain a little before day and Continued raining untill 11 oClock I proceeded on thro emencely bad thickets & hills crossing 2 points to a 3rd on which we built a fire and Cooked a Deer which Jos. Field Killd. from this point I can See into a Deep bend in the coast to the N. E. 〈N 40° E〉 fr 10 miles.    after Brackfast I proceeded on N. 20 E. 5 miles to Comcement a lage Sand bar at a low part    ponds a little off from the Coast here the high rockey hills end and a low marshey Countrey Suckceed. I proceeded up the Course N. 10° W. 4 miles & marked my name & the Day of the Month on a pine tree, [1] the waters which Wash this Sand beach is tinged with a deep brown Colour for Some distance out. The Course Contd. is N. 20° W. low Coast and Sand beech, Saw a Dead Sturgen [2] 10 feet long on the Sand, & the back bone of a Whale, as I conceived    raind I then returned to the Cape & dined, Some curious Deer [3] on this Course darker large boded Shorte legs Pronged horns & the top of the tale black under part white as usial    passed a nitch in the rocks below into which falls a Stream, after Dinner I Set out on my return S. E.    passed over a low ridge & thro a piney countrey 2 ½ miles to the Bay, thence up the Bay to the mouth of the Chen-nook River Crossed in the Canoe we had left there & Encamped on the upper Side [4]    The Hills in the point of this bay are not high, & imedeately below this River the present yellow Bluffs— [5]

above the River and up for about 2 miles the land is low Slashey and Contains much drift wood, the Countrey up this Creek is low with 〈places or〉 Copse of high land or as I may Say elevated. The Buzzard which Ruben Fields killed diameter of one feather is—1¼ & 1 Line from the tip of one to the tip of the other wing is 9 feet 0 Inches, from the point of the Bill to the tale is 3 feet 10¼ Ins.    middle Toe 5½ Inches, Toe nale 1 Inches [3½? and one mark illegible]    wing feather 2 feet ½ In. Tale feathers 14¼ In.    Head is 6¼ Inch long including the [beek?]


a Cloudy rainey day    proceeded up the Coast which runs from my camp 1¼ miles west of the iner extry of the Cape N. 20° W. 5 miles through a rugged hilley countrey thickly [NB?: timbered] off the Sea coast to the Comencement of an extencive Sand beech which runs N. 10° W. to point Lewis about 20 miles distance. I proceeded up this coast 4 miles and marked my name on a low pine.    and returned 3 miles back (The Countrey opsd. this Sand coast is low and Slashey,[)] Crossed the point 2 miles to the bay and encamped on Chinnook river—    See another book for perticulars [EC: see Codex I.]


I arose early this morning from under a wet blanket caused by a Shower of rain which fell in the latter part of the last night and Sent two men on a head with directions to proceed on near the Sea Coast and Kill Something for brackfast and that I Should follow my Self in about half an hour.    after drying our blankets a little I Set out with a view to proceed near the Coast the direction of which induced me to conclude that at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, the Bay was at no great distance across. I overtook the hunters at about 3 miles, they had killed a Small Deer on which we brackfast    it comened raining and Continued moderately untill 11 oClock A M.

after takeing a Sumptious brackfast of venison which was rosted on Stiks exposed to the fire, I proceeded on through ruged Country of high hills and Steep hollers on a course from the Cape N 20° W. 5 miles on a Direct line to the Commencement of a Sandy Coast which extended N. 10° W. from the top of the hill above the Sand Shore to a Point of high land distant near 20 miles.    this point I have taken the Liberty of Calling after my particular friend Lewis—    at the commencement of this Sand beech the high lands leave the Sea coast in a Direction to Chinnook river, and does not touch the Sea Coast again 〈untill〉 below point Lewis leaveing a low pondey countrey, maney places open with small ponds in which there is great numbr. of fowl    I am informed that the Chinnook Nation inhabit this low countrey and live in large wood houses on a river which passes through this bottom Parrilal to the Sea coast and falls into the Bay

I proceeded on the Sandy Coast 4 miles, and marked my name on a Small pine, the Day of the month & year, &c. and returned to the foot of the hill, from which place I intended to Strike across to The Bay, I saw a Sturgeon which had been thrown on Shore and left by the tide 10 feet in length, and Several joints of the back bone of a whale which must have foundered on this part of the Coast.    after Dineing on the remains of our Small Deer I proceeded through over a land S E with Some Ponds to the bay distance about 2 miles, thence up to the mouth of Chinnook river 2 miles, crossed this little river in the Canoe we left at its mouth and Encamped on the upper Side in an open Sandy bottom—    The hills next to the bay Cape disapointment to a Short distance up the Chinnook river is not verry high thickly Coverd. with different Species of pine &c. maney of which are large, I observed in maney places pine of 3 or 4 feet through growing on the bodies of large trees which had fallen down, and covered with moss and yet part Sound. The Deer of this Coast differ materially from our Common deer in a much as they are much darker deeper bodied Shorter ledged horns equally branched from the beem the top of the tail black from the rute to the end    Eyes larger and do not lope but jump. [8]


Tuesday 19th Nov. 1805.    cloudy    a light Sprinkling of rain the later part of last night    we proceeded on the coast over high rough hills    Some places prarie and bald hills.    one of the hunters killed a Deer.    we halted and eat a part of the Deer and went on over a verry bad rough way along the coast.    high towers of rocks Standing out in the edge of the ocean.    we got over these rough hills    the country appears low further on the coast. So we went on the Sand beach about 10 miles distant from Cape dissipointment, then turned back, [9] cut across the woods a new way, and Camped [10] at Chi neck River in Hailys bay.


Tuesday 19th.    We had a cloudy, rainy morning; but some of the hunters went out. About 1 o'clock, the natives, who had been with us some time, went away; and at 4 another party of the same nation came, and encamped close by us. They consisted of 15 men and one squaw. The dress of the squaw was the same with those of the others. Several of the men have robes made of brant skins: one of them had a hat made of the bark of white cedar and bear-grass, very handsomely wrought and water-proof.— One of our party purchased it for an old razor. Our hunters killed 3 deer to day.


Tuesday Novemr. 19th    A cloudy morning.    Our hunters went out & killed 3 Deer this day, which they brought to our Camp.    A number of Indians came to visit us at our Camp.    They wore Robes made out of the Skins of swans, Squirrel skins, & some made out of beaver skins also—    Some of these Indians Wore hats which they make out of white Cedar & bear Grass. [11]    They sold one of these Hatts to one of our party for an old Razor blade.    These Indians are a handsome well looking set of People, [12] and were far the lightest colour'd Natives that we had seen since we have been on our Voyage.    Some of these Indians about 15 in number encamped near us, and staid during this night.—

1. Clark advanced about nine miles up the coast from his camp, the extent of which is marked as "W. Clark 19th Novr. 1805" on fig. 1. This may indicate also the marking Clark placed on the tree. On Atlas map 91 that point may be the spot marked "Turned back." He was in the area of present Long Beach, Pacific County, Washington. Willapa Bay is a short distance inland, but it does not appear that he saw it. Archaeological work in this area has been confined almost entirely to excavations at the Martin site, a shell midden near Nahcotta, Pacific County, occupied between approximately 1,900 and 500 years ago. Kidd; Shaw. (back)
2. Given the size (somewhat exaggerated here) it is probably the green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Lee et al., 40. (back)
3. The Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbiana, previously unknown to science. See Lewis's description below, February 19, 1806. Burroughs, 127–28; Cutright (LCPN), 242, 244, 441; Hall, 2:1088–89. (back)
4. On the east side of Wallacut River, a mile or more northeast of present Ilwaco, Pacific County. The spot is clearly indicated on Atlas map 91. (back)
5. The hills in this area are composed of Oligocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks, some of which are not especially indurated. (back)
6. This is the last entry in Codex H. A longer entry for the day follows in Codex I. (back)
7. This begins the first daily entry in Codex I, which continues to January 29, 1806. Preceding this entry on the front flyleaf are the following words, in pencil and apparently in Clark's hand: "Gentlemen To meet the approbation of my Country." At the bottom of the page and upside down are some random arithmetic figures, probably relating to astronomical calculations. They read as follow, although the placement of the numbers may not be exact:
                    44 | 490 11
            [H?]       1 44—7   44  
      m                    7 40  
Lat. 39°     46.6/10 } 4           46.6            
46       41 6/10       34 6            
  2 | 88 2/10         279 6            
      44       1864            
          1612 36            
This entry is also preceded by thirty-thee pages of statistical and meteorological material. First comes a table of distances from Fort Mandan to the Pacific Coast (pp. 2–12); it is found in Part 1 of the Fort Clatsop Miscellany. The weather data (pp. 13–33) are placed monthly by chronology. In this journal the weather tables are for the months of April 1805 through January 1806. See Appendix C. Clark also defines his weather table abbreviations on p. 13. This is a copy (with some changes in dates and places) of the explanatory notes found in the Weather Diary which are placed with the January 1804 weather table. Here Clark gives the position of Fort Mandan as 47° 12' 47" north latitude and 99° 24' 45 1/10" west longitude, somewhat different than earlier calculations. Finally, the date for the entry is immediately preceded by a heading: "Cape Disappointment at the Enterance of Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean. (See Journal N 6)." "Journal N 6" is Clark's designation for Codex H. (back)
8. This material about the deer has a red vertical line through it, perhaps done by Biddle. (back)
9. The party went as far as the area about Long Beach, Pacific County, Washington. (back)
10. On the east side of Wallacut River, a mile or more northeast of Ilwaco, Pacific County. (back)
11. Beargrass, Xerophyllum tenax (Pursh) Nutt. (back)
12. A very different impression of the appearance of the local people from that of Lewis; see the captain's entry for March 19, 1806. They were Chinooks, of the Chinookan language family. (back)