Illustrators charged with making a picture to represent "The Lewis and Clark Expedition" have usually produced variations on a familiar theme: the two captains, slightly differentiated by dress, gaze off into the western distance; Sacagawea stands nearby with her infant, sometimes pointing the way. Clark's black servant, York, is usually prominent, especially in recent years, and Toussaint Charbonneau and Lewis's dog, Scannon (or Seaman), are frequently present. In the background an anonymous collection of buckskin-clad figures representing the rest of the party follow their leaders' gaze toward the horizon or go about their labors. This familiar picture represents the popular conception of the expedition; unfortunately, it also represents fairly accurately the actual state of knowledge about the men who went with the captains on their great trek. 
About the captains there is abundant information; most of the Corps of Discovery, however, lived obscure lives before and after their season of glory. For many there exists the scantiest record, or none at all, about their lives before 1803 and after 1806. The records of the expedition themselves provide, in most cases, only the barest hints about their personalities, virtues, and weaknesses. William Clark seems to have thought of the permanent party as his "Band of Brothers," in some sense; he had some interest in their later careers, but even he apparently lost track of several of them. Some twenty years after the return to St. Louis, he drew up a list of thirty-four; eighteen, including Lewis, he knew or believed to be dead—six of them, in testimony to the hazards of frontier life, listed as "killed"—and for five he apparently had no information. One of those he thought dead, Patrick Gass, not only was alive but would outlive Clark and every other expedition member. 
Sacagawea has attracted much attention in this century from historians and writers of fiction, but the amount written about her far exceeds the actual information about her life and personality. York is a natural symbol of black participation in the westward movement, but even less is known of him as a man. John Colter acquired fame in his own right as an explorer through his travels and adventures in the Rockies after the expedition. Toussaint and Jean Baptiste Charbonneau have shared some of Sacagawea's glory. For most of the rest, even such journal keepers as John Ordway and Joseph Whitehouse, we can give at best a brief sketch of their lives. For some, we cannot even be sure of the correct spelling of their names.
The captains drew their men from three principal sources: Anglo-American frontiersmen from the Ohio Valley, U.S. Army enlisted men, and the French settlers of Illinois and Missouri. In the letter offering Clark the chance to second him on the expedition, Lewis wrote that his friend should recruit some young men in Kentucky and Indiana. Clark was instructed to pick backwoodsmen, skilled in hunting and outdoor life and used to hardship, rather than "young gentlemen." Clark had several recruits gathered at Clarksville, Indiana Territory, when Lewis picked him up in October 1803; those have become known as the "Nine Young Men from Kentucky," although two of the men listed under that head, George Shannon and John Colter, may have joined Lewis on his journey down the Ohio by the time he reached Cincinnati. 
Most of the remaining men evidently joined the expedition during the winter at River Dubois. Many were enlisted men from four companies of the U.S. Army stationed at small posts in the West: Captain Daniel Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment, stationed at Fort Massac, Illinois; Captain Russell Bissell's company of the same regiment, stationed at Fort Kaskaskia, Illinois; Captain John Campbell's company of the Second Infantry Regiment, stationed in Tennessee; and Captain Amos Stoddard's company of artillerists, stationed at Fort Kaskaskia. Clark seems to have suspected that the men sent from Tennessee, at least, were picked on the time-honored principle of getting rid of those who could best be spared by their original unit (see Clark's entry, December 22, 1803). Some backwoodsmen from the Illinois and Missouri settlements may have joined during the winter, but for a number of men there is no indication of when and where they first joined or whether they were already in the army. All those not already in the military service who were chosen for the permanent party enlisted as soldiers, except York, Clark's slave, and George Drouillard, the civilian interpreter and hunter. Two French boatmen with experience in the Indian trade on the Missouri, François Labiche and Pierre Cruzatte, enlisted for the permanent party. 
It would appear that the captains decided during the winter of 1803–4 that they would send back a party of men from somewhere up the Missouri during the first year of the expedition. Such a party could carry back dispatches, maps, completed journals, and plant, animal, mineral, and anthropological specimens to President Jefferson, giving him a progress report and sparing the expedition the labor of carrying such objects for the entire journey. The thought that something would be saved if they themselves failed to return must have been in their minds. Clark's Dubois Journal contains several lists of names, marked and annotated, showing that he was evaluating the men and trying to determine, on the basis of character and ability, who should be in the permanent and return parties. By April 1, 1804, as indicated by a detachment order, the captains had determined the constitution of the two parties, so far as the enlisted soldiers were concerned, and for the most part they adhered to that plan. Certain changes became necessary because of subsequent events, a possibility they had no doubt anticipated from the start. For instance, the two enlisted French boatmen, François Labiche and Pierre Cruzatte, joined the ranks of the permanent party. Moses B. Reed and John Newman were expelled from the permanent party, the first for desertion, the other for insubordination. Sergeant Charles Floyd died, and Patrick Gass, another member of the permanent party, assumed his rank. To make up the losses in the permanent party, the captains transferred Robert Frazer from the original return party and enlisted Jean Baptiste Lepage, a French trapper encountered at the Mandan villages.
As matters developed, the return party did not set out during the summer or fall of 1804, as originally planned. On April 7, 1805, when the captains and the permanent party left Fort Mandan headed up the Missouri, they were able to send back this return group in the keelboat and one canoe. An exact list exists for the group bound for the Pacific, but for the returning body there remain some mysteries. Corporal Richard Warfington was in charge of the party, and the captains both say that he had with him in the keelboat six soldiers and two Frenchmen, with two more Frenchmen in the canoe.
Among the six soldiers were Reed and Newman, expelled from the permanent party. Four other soldiers were intended from the first for the return party, probably Privates John Boley, John Dame, Ebenezer Tuttle, and Isaac White. It seems possible, if unlikely, that the mysterious John Robertson, or Robinson, was one of them, instead of either Tuttle or White (see the sketch of Robertson). 
Most of the returning Frenchmen were certainly engagés—hired boatmen—who had been with the expedition from the start. It is quite clear from the records that the captains regarded their status to be entirely different from that of the enlisted men. They were not soldiers and did not require the same care in record keeping as that demanded by the army. Clark's usual difficulties in spelling were compounded with French names, and Lewis's spelling of French names was not much better.
Another factor complicating the records was the custom of the Mississippi valley French of giving dit names, nicknames by which a man might be better known than by his surname. Unlike English nicknames, these might be passed on from father to son and were considered significant enough to be used in official records. Commonly they referred either to a personal characteristic or to a place of origin or residence. Thus we have Louis Blanchette, dit le Chasseur (the hunter), founder of St. Charles, Missouri, and Jacques Chauvin, dit Charlesville, probably after the city in France. Hence, French names in expedition records may be either surnames or dit names, and this may account for some of the inconsistencies in the lists. 
There are two principal lists of engagés, which were evidently intended to be complete, one in a detachment order of May 26, 1804, the other in Clark's Field Notes under July 4, 1804. They are inconsistent in both names and numbers, and there is no certainty whether the inconsistencies represent additions or discharges, use of surnames or dit names, or simple forgetfulness. There is also a record of men paid off in St. Louis after their return from Fort Mandan in 1805, but it is obviously incomplete. Some of the men may not appear there because they were discharged at the Arikara or Mandan villages in the fall of 1804 and received their pay in cash. It is at least possible that men were added or discharged along the Missouri, recruited from St. Louis–bound trading parties or leaving the expedition and joining such a party. The captains' lack of attention to the Frenchmen may have extended to failure to note such changes among the engagés. 
The purpose of this appendix is to give brief sketches of those known to be associated with the expedition up to August 24, 1804. Individuals are listed alphabetically within groups: the leaders; sergeants; privates, corporal, interpreter, and servant; and engagés. Sketches of Sacagawea, Toussaint Charbonneau, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, and Jean Baptiste Lepage, all of whom joined during the winter of 1804–5 at Fort Mandan, will appear in the next volume. For the two captains only a brief biography is necessary. For most of the others it is possible to include most of the principal facts, with an indication of the sources for further study. In most cases there is no new, previously unpublished information, but an effort has been made to draw together the work of previous researchers in the field. In a few cases, doubts and unresolved questions about some men, such as John Robertson and La Liberté, have necessitated disproportionately long sketches of men whose actual importance to the expedition was minor.
Captain Meriwether Lewis (1774–1809). Born in Virginia, he joined the army in 1794 and served in the Ohio Valley and the Old Northwest Territory, where he became friends with Clark. He became Jefferson's private secretary in 1801, while retaining his military rank, and in 1803 the president assigned him the task of conducting the expedition. After the expedition he became governor of Louisiana Territory, where he encountered difficulties that caused him severe emotional problems. He died by his own hand on the Natchez Trace in Tennessee. Dillon; Bakeless (LCPD).
Second Lieutenant William Clark (1770–1838). The younger brother of George Rogers Clark, he moved from Virginia, where he was born, to Kentucky with his family at the age of fourteen. Joining the army in 1792, he participated in the campaigns of General Anthony Wayne in the Northwest, rising to the rank of captain; Lewis was under his command for a time. He left the army in 1796 to attend to family business, but he kept in touch with Lewis and was apparently the other's first choice to share command of the expedition. Because of army red tape, he received only a second lieutenant's rank, but he and Lewis concealed this from the men, and he was always referred to as Captain Clark. After the expedition he had a distinguished political career, including the governorship of Missouri Territory, but for much of the time until his death he was in charge of relations with the Indians west of the Mississippi, with his headquarters in St. Louis. The Indians knew that city simply as "Red Head's Town," after him, and he strove to maintain some degree of justice and equity in the relations between Indian and white. Loos; Bakeless (LCPD); Steffen.
Sergeant Charles Floyd (1782–1804). Born in Kentucky, he was one of the nine young men from that state on the expedition. Lewis regarded him as "a young man of much merit," and he was made a sergeant before the start of the expedition. He is remembered principally as the only member lost on the voyage; he died on August 20, 1804, near present Sioux City, Iowa, perhaps of a ruptured appendix. He kept his journal until a few days before his death. He may have been a distant relative of William Clark. Floyd's (or Floyd) River in Iowa was named for him. Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:366, 370 n. 3; Clarke (MLCE), 39; Garver.
Sergeant Patrick Gass (1771–1870). Born in Pennsylvania, of Irish ancestry, he belonged to Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry, having joined the army in 1799 after service in a volunteer Ranger unit. He was promoted from private to sergeant after Floyd's death in August of 1804, having officially joined the expedition on January 1, 1804. His skill as a carpenter was of great value to the expedition. His journal, published in 1807 after considerable alteration, was the first journal from the expedition to see publication. He stayed on in the army and served in the War of 1812, losing an eye in an accident, which caused his discharge. Marrying at the age of sixty, he eventually settled in Wellsburg, West Virginia, and died there in 1870, the last known survivor of the expedition. Clarke (MLCE), 39–40; Jacob; Forrest, Smith (SSPG); McGirr.
Sergeant John Ordway (ca. 1775–ca. 1817). One of the journalists of the expedition, he was born and apparently grew up in New Hampshire. He joined from Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry and was placed on the expedition roll on January 1, 1804, but he was already at Camp Dubois some time before that. He was the only one of the original sergeants to come from the regular army, and probably for that reason he often took care of the paperwork and was in charge of the camp when the captains were both absent. Ordway kept his journal faithfully throughout the expedition. He seldom appears in the journals except in carrying out some duty, attesting to his reliability. After the expedition he accompanied Lewis and a party of Indians to Washington, D.C., then returned to New Hampshire, having taken his discharge. In 1809 he settled in Missouri, became prosperous, and married. He and his wife had died by 1817. Clarke (MLCE), 40–41.
Sergeant Nathaniel Hale Pryor (1772–1831). He was born in Virginia and was a cousin of Charles Floyd, also with the expedition. He moved to Kentucky with his parents in 1783 and joined the expedition on October 20, 1803, at Clarksville, Indiana, as one of the nine young men from Kentucky. He was one of the few members already married, having taken a wife in 1798. He may have kept a journal, like the other sergeants, but none has been found. The captains considered him "a man of character and ability" and after the expedition helped him secure an officer's commission in the army. In 1807 he was in charge of the expedition to return the Mandan chief Sheheke to his tribe, but he was forced to turn back by the Arikaras. He resigned from the army in 1810 and entered the Indian trade on the Mississippi; he rejoined the army in 1813 and rose to captain, serving in the Battle of New Orleans. After the War of 1812 he became a trader among the Osages on the Arkansas River, married an Osage woman, and remained with the tribe until his death. He served briefly as government agent for the Osages in 1830–31. Pryor, Oklahoma, and the Pryor Mountains and town of Pryor, both in Montana, bear his name. Clarke (MLCE), 41–42; Settle.
Private John Boley (dates unknown). Boley, sometimes "Boleye" in the records, was probably born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and was living in Kaskaskia when he joined the army in 1803. He came from Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment. He had some disciplinary trouble at River Dubois and was designated for the return party. After returning from Fort Mandan in 1805 he accompanied Zebulon M. Pike's expedition to the upper Mississippi in that year, and in 1806 he went with Pike to the southwest and the Rockies. Part of that group, including Boley, returned east down the Arkansas River before Pike and the rest were captured by the Spanish. After his discharge he settled in Missouri and reportedly accompanied a civilian party to the Rockies. In 1823, he and his wife were living in Carondelet, near St. Louis. Jackson (LLC), 1:237 n. 7; Clarke (MLCE), 60.
Private William E. Bratton (1778–1841). Often "Bratten" in the journals, he was born in Virginia and moved to Kentucky with his family in about 1790. He enlisted with the expedition on October 20, 1803, as one of the nine young men from Kentucky. Bratton was useful to the expedition as a hunter and blacksmith. During the spring of 1806 he was incapacitated for some weeks by a mysterious back ailment, perhaps the longest spell of serious illness experienced by any member of the expedition, finally being cured by an Indian sweat bath. After the expedition he lived in Kentucky and Missouri, served in the War of 1812, married in 1819, and lived in Ohio and Indiana. He died and was buried at Waynetown, Indiana. Clarke (MLCE), 43–45; Chuinard, 348–76; Lange (WB).
Private John Collins (?–1823). Born in Maryland, Collins officially joined the expedition on January 1, 1804, although he was probably at the River Dubois camp before that; he may have transferred from Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry. Collins was involved in disciplinary troubles as often as any other man in the expedition, leading Clark to call him a "black gard"; at River Dubois he stole a local farmer's hog and was frequently drunk and disobedient. On the first summer of the voyage he was court-martialed for stealing whiskey from the official supply while detailed to guard it. Nonetheless, he was from the first a member of the permanent party, presumably because of redeeming qualities perceived by the captains. He may have settled in Missouri after the expedition. Later he was with William Ashley's trapping venture to the upper Missouri and was killed in Ashley's battle with the Arikaras in 1823. Clarke (MLCE), 45.
Private John Colter (ca. 1775–1813). Colter, probably the only member of the Corps whose fame does not rest primarily on his service with the expedition, was born in Virginia. As a youth, he and his family moved to Maysville, Kentucky, where he intercepted Lewis on the captain's voyage down the Ohio, becoming one of the nine young men from Kentucky. His enlistment dates from October 15, 1803. After some disciplinary difficulties during the winter at River Dubois, he proved useful to the expedition as a hunter. On the return journey he received permission to leave the party at the Mandan villages to join a small trapping expedition headed back up the Missouri. He spent an additional four years in the mountains as an independent trapper and working for Manuel Lisa's Missouri Fur Company. In his wanderings he was apparently the first white man to see the region of present Yellowstone Park, and his tales of hot springs and geysers led to derisive jokes about "Colter's Hell." His escape, naked, from the Blackfeet near the Three Forks of the Missouri has become a western legend. On his return to civilization in 1810 he was able to add information to Clark's great map of the West. Settling in Missouri, Colter married; he died in 1813 of jaundice. Clarke (MLCE), 46–48; Haines; Vinton; Harris.
Private Pierre Cruzatte (dates unknown). Often referred to as "Peter Cruzat" and other variations in the journals, he was half French and half Omaha. His official enlistment date was May 16, 1804, at St. Charles, Missouri, but he may have been recruited earlier. He was an experienced Missouri River boatman who had already participated in the Indian trade as far as Nebraska and was hired for his skill and experience. Unlike the other French boatmen, he and François Labiche were enlisted as members of the permanent party. He was one-eyed and nearsighted, and his fiddle playing often entertained the party. At times he also acted as an interpreter. Lewis paid tribute during the expedition to his skill and experince as a riverman and to his integrity, but in the postexpedition list of members he receives no special recommendation; this is perhaps because the myopic Cruzatte had accidentally wounded Lewis while the two were hunting in August 1806. Speculation places him with John McClellan's expedition to the Rockies in 1807. Clark lists him as "killed" by 1825–28. Clarke (MCLE), 62–63; Jackson (LLC) 1:371 n. 8; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:638; Majors 573.
Private John Dame (1784–?). Dame, born in New Hampshire, joined the army in 1801; he was assigned to the expedition from Captain Amos Stoddard's artillery company and designated for the return party. He is mentioned once in the journals, August 8, 1804, for killing a pelican. Jackson (LLC), 1:237 n. 7; Clarke (MLCE), 60.
Interpreter George Drouillard (?–1810). Generally "Drewyer" or some variant in the journals, he was probably born in Canada, the son of a French-Canadian father and a Shawnee mother, and migrated as a youth to the Cape Girardeau district of Missouri with his mother's people. He met Lewis at Fort Massac, Illinois, in November 1803, possibly while employed by the army there, and agreed to serve the expedition as an interpreter. He was apparently considered a civilian employee, not an enlisted man, during the expedition. His skill with the Indian sign language was of great value to the captains, and he was also one of the Corps's best hunters; whenever one of the captains set out to scout ahead of the party, Drouillard was likely to be chosen to accompany him, because of those abilities and his general skill as a scout and wilderness man. After the expedition's return he became a partner in Manuel Lisa's fur trading ventures on the upper Missouri and the Yellowstone. On a return trip to St. Louis he was able to contribute information to Clark's map of the West. Drouillard was with the party of Lisa's men who established a fur post at the Three Forks of the Missouri in 1810, and near there in that year he died at the hands of the Blackfeet. Clarke (MLCE), 40; Skarsten (GD) and (GDLC); Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:368–69; Lange (GD).
* Privates Joseph Field (ca. 1772–1807) and Reubin Field (ca. 1771–1823?). The two brothers, called "Field" or "Fields" at various times in the journals, were born in Virginia and came to Kentucky at an early age; they were among the nine young men from Kentucky, and their official enlistment date was August 1, 1803, indicating that they were among the first men recruited by Clark in the neighborhood of his home. Reubin had some disciplinary difficulties at River Dubois, but both were chosen for the permanent party. They were among the best shots and hunters in the Corps of Discovery and with George Drouillard were often chosen to accompany the captains on special reconnaissances; both were with Lewis in his fight with the Blackfeet on July 27, 1806. Lewis wrote, "It was their peculiar fate to have been engaged in all the most dangerous and difficult scenes of the voyage, in which they uniformly acquited themselves with much honor." Joseph apparently died less than a year after the return of the expedition; Clark listed him as "killed," as distinguished from those who died a natural death. One theory suggests that he was with the mysterious expedition of John McClellan to the Rockies when his death occurred, but in that case it hardly seems that word of his death could have reached Kentucky by October 1807, when it was officially recorded. Reubin settled in Kentucky, married, and died by early 1823. Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:367; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid, 2:638; Clarke (MLCE), 48–49; Appleman (JRF); Majors, 573; Lange (EB).
Private Robert Frazer (?–1837). "Frazer" is the accepted form of his name, but in the journals he is often "Frazier," "Frasure," and other forms that probably indicate how his comrades pronounced his name. Accounts saying that he was born in Vermont and was once a fencing master are apparently in error; he was probably born in Virginia. There is no information on when he joined or if he had previously been in the army. Frazer was not at first part of the permanent party but was transferred from the intended return party on October 8, 1804, to replace Moses Reed after the latter's expulsion. Frazer kept a journal and received special permission from the captains to publish it, but the publication never took place and the journal is apparently lost. His map of the expedition, far below the standard set by Clark, has survived (Atlas map 124). He accompanied Lewis to Washington, D.C., after the expedition, then returned to Missouri and settled there. He died in Franklin County, Missouri. Clarke (MLCE), 61; Cutright (HLCJ), 20 and n. 4.
Private George Gibson (?–1809). Born in Pennsylvania, he was one of the nine young men from Kentucky. He was a good hunter and played the fiddle for the party on occasion. He served as an interpreter, probably through the medium of sign language. He may have been with Nathaniel Pryor's party attempting to return the Mandan chief Sheheke to his home in 1807 and was perhaps wounded then. He died in St. Louis. Clarke (MLCE), 49.
Private Silas Goodrich (dates unknown). Goodrich, sometimes "Guterage" or some variation in the journals, was born in Massachusetts. The time and place of his joining the Corps are unknown, although he was officially enrolled in January 1, 1804; possible he was then a resident of Missouri, and he may already have been in the army. He was one of the expedition's best fishermen. He reenlisted in the army after the expedition. Clark lists him as dead by 1825–28. Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:638; Clarke (MLCE), 50.
Private Hugh Hall (ca. 1772–?). Hall was born in Massachusetts, joined the army in 1798, and was transferred to the expedition from Captain John Campbell's company of the Second Infantry Regiment in November 1803. Clark notes that he drank. He and John Collins were court-martialed in June 1804 for tapping the official ration whiskey and getting drunk, Collins having been detailed to guard the supply. Hall was in the St. Louis area in 1809, when he borrowed money from Lewis; Clark apparently had no information to record about him in 1825–28. Jackson (LLC), 1:371 n. 15; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:638; Clarke (MLCE), 50.
Private Thomas Proctor Howard (1779–?). Howard was born and reared in Massachusetts and joined the army in 1801; he was assigned to the expedition from Captain John Campbell's company of the Second Infantry Regiment, officially enrolling on January 1, 1804. Clark noted at River Dubois that Howard "never Drinks water." On February 9, 1805, returning to Fort Mandan from the Indian villages after the gate was closed, he climbed over the wall. The next day he was tried for setting a "pernicious example" to the Indians by showing them that the wall was easily scaled. The sentence was fifty lashes, remitted on the recommendation of the court. This was the last recorded court-martial of the expedition. A Thomas Howard was again serving in the army in 1808. Clark had no information to record on him in 1825–28. Jackson (LLC), 1:371 n. 14; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:638; Clarke (MLCE), 50.
Private François Labiche (dates unknown). He is referred to as "La Buish," "Leebice," and other spellings in the journals. Though traditionally regarded as half French and half Omaha, he may be the "mulatto" mentioned by Charles McKenzie as interpreting French for the captains at Fort Mandan. (The only other possible mulatto would have been York, who surely spoke no French). Labiche was apparently recruited at Kaskaskia, though the official date of his enlistment is May 16, 1804, at St. Charles, Missouri. Like Cruzatte he was an enlisted member of the permanent party, not a hired boatman, undoubtedly chosen for his experience as a boatman and Indian trader. Lewis took special note of his services as an interpreter, recommending that he receive a bonus; he went with Lewis to Washington, D.C., after the expedition to interpret for the Indian chiefs. He may be the François Labuche who lived in or near St. Louis and baptized seven children there between 1811 and 1834. It is possible that "Labiche" may have been a nickname, the family name being Milhomme. Clark listed him as living in St. Louis in 1825–28. Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:367, 371 n. 16; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:638; Masson, 1:336–37; Clarke (MLCE), 64.
Private Hugh McNeal (dates unknown). He was born and reared in Pennsylvania and may have been in the army before joining the expedition. A man of that name was on the army rolls as late in 1811. Clark lists him a dead by 1825–28. Jackson (LLC), 1:371 n. 17; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:639.
Private John Newman (ca. 1785–1838). Newman was born in Pennsylvania and joined the expedition from Captain Daniel Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment. He avoided the disciplinary troubles of some of the others at River Dubois, and his record was apparently good until October 1804, when he was confined for "having uttered repeated expressions of a highly criminal and mutinous nature." Tried by court-martial, he received seventy-five lashes and was expelled from the party. His offense may have consisted of angry, defiant words uttered in a moment of bad temper, or he may have been involved in something more serious in collusion with Moses Reed. Since he could not be abandoned in the wilderness, he accompanied the party to Fort Mandan, doing hard labor, then went back with the return party in April 1805. During the intervening months he worked hard to redeem himself, in the hope of being restored to the permanent party, but although the captains were pleased with his conduct, they did not deem it wise to alter their verdict. After the expedition Lewis suggested that Congress allow Newman the pay for his period of service up to his expulsion. He did receive some pay and a land warrant as a member of the expedition, and he may have settled in Missouri. He married at least once but had no children of record. In the 1830s he trapped on the Missouri in the Dakotas for some years and was killed by the Yankton Sioux in the summer of 1838. Clark included him in his list of 1825–28, indicating some interest in Newman's welfare, although he had no information to record. Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:365–66, 372 endnote; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:639; Clarke (JN); Clarke (MLCE), 51.
Private John Potts (1776–1808?). Potts was born in Germany and had been a miller; he joined the U. S. Army in 1800. He was with Captain Robert Purdy's company in Tennessee when ordered to join the expedition in November 1803. In 1807 he joined Manuel Lisa's fur-trading venture to the upper Missouri. He was with his old comrade John Colter when the two were ambushed by Blackfeet near the Three Forks of the Missouri; Potts was killed and Colter narrowly escaped. Jackson (LLC), 1:371 n. 20; Clarke (MLCE), 51; Harris, 133–34.
Private Moses B. Reed (dates unknown). Reed's antecedents and the point at which he joined the expedition are unknown. He was a member of the permanent party as it was originally constituted, but in August 1804 he attempted to desert; apprehended, he was tried, convicted, and expelled from the party. He remained with the expedition doing hard labor until sent back with the return party in April 1805. Ordway records that Reed was confined on October 12, 1804, at the same time that John Newman was arrested for "mutinous expression." This is the only indication that Reed may have been involved in Newman's offense, but if so, then Newman may have been guilty of something more than a fit of bad-tempered insubordination. Conceivably the two were in collusion to defy the captains' authority in some way, or perhaps Reed tried to induce some other men to support Newman's defiance. There is no other record of Reed's confinement at this time or of his being punished; since he had been dishonorably discharged, the captains may have doubted their legal authority to punish him. After his return to St. Louis, he dropped out of sight. When Clark made up his list of party members in 1825–28, he included Newman but not Reed, evidence of his total lack of interest in the latter's fate. Clarke (MLCE), 52; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:638–39.
Private John Robertson (ca. 1780–?). Also "Roberson" in the journals, he is thought to be the Corporal John Robinson, born in New Hampshire, who was serving with Captain Amos Stoddard's artillery company at the time of the expedition. Clark refers to him as a corporal on December 26, 1803, but in subsequent references where rank is given he is a private; apparently he was demoted for some reason. Perhaps he was the unnamed corporal Clark criticized on January 4, 1804, for having "no authority" over his men; this is even more likely because the captains were so completely satisfied with Corporal Richard Warfington, the only other corporal with the expedition. Robertson had some difficulties involving drinking during the River Dubois winter. In an undated list in Clark's Field Notes (placed under April 12, 1804) he is designated for the return party. The last dated mention of his name is in the Orderly Book for April 1, 1804, where he is also designated as one of those to return from somewhere up the Missouri. There is no subsequent dated reference to his name, and he is not in the detachment order of May 26, 1804, concerning the organization of squads. On June 12, 1804, Joseph Whitehouse wrote that a man from Captain Stoddard's company was sent back to St. Louis with a trading party encountered coming down the river; no one else bothered to record the incident, and Whitehouse gives no name and no reason for his return. If Robertson was with the expedition until June 12, it is peculiar that he is not mentioned in the May 26 detachment order. If he was not the man from Stoddard's company sent back, then there are only two men known to have been from this company who are not mentioned in the journals after June 12, and if one of them was sent back, and Robertson had left some time earlier, then there exist problems in accounting for the six soldiers who were with the return party from Fort Mandan under Corporal Warfington in 1805. No reason is anywhere indicated why Robertson would be taken along yet not included in the detachment order of May 26. A purely speculative possibility may be mentioned. The detachment order of May 26 specifically exempts Thomas P. Howard from duty with the pirogues without giving any reason, such as a special assignment. It could be that Howard, designated for the permanent party, was temporarily incapacitated by some illness or injury but was expected to recover in a short time. Robertson might then have been taken along to replace Howard, the preferred man, if the latter did not recover as quickly as anticipated. However having improved as hoped, the less desirable Robertson was sent home. Difficulties with this hypothesis are that no such illness of Howard's is mentioned, and the party with which the unnamed man returned was not the first one met coming down the river. Presumably Robertson returned to his original unit, but there is no further record of him. Clarke (MLCE), 61–62; Jackson (LLC), 1:373 endnote.
Private George Shannon (1785–1836). The youngest member of the party, Shannon was born in Pennsylvania and moved to Ohio with his family in 1800. He joined Lewis at Maysville, Kentucky, with an official enlistment date of October 19, 1803, and is usually listed with the nine young men from Kentucky. In the fall of 1804 he as lost for over two weeks and nearly starved; some sources state that he was continually getting lost, which is unjust, since the only other time he was separated from the party for a few days, on the headwaters of the Missouri in 1805, was hardly his fault. In 1807 he was with Nathaniel Pryor's party in the attempt to return the Mandan chief Sheheke to his people and was wounded in the encounter with the Arikaras; the wound cost him his leg. Eventually he received a government pension for his injury. In 1810 he assisted Nicholas Biddle in the preparation of his history of the expedition. Clark offered him an opportunity to join him in the fur trade, but Shannon chose to study law, and by 1818, after university training, he was practicing in Lexington, Kentucky. He pursued the legal and political career common on the frontier in his day, eventually serving as senator from Missouri. He died and was buried in Palmyra, Missouri. Clarke (MLCE), 52–53; Lange (PGS).
Private John Shields (1769–1809). Born in Virginia, Shields emigrated with his family to Tennessee in 1784; in 1790 he married and was thus one of the few married men with the expedition. He enlisted on October 19, 1803, and is usually listed as one of the nine young men from Kentucky; in fact, he was the oldest member of the permanent party whose age is known, with the exception of Toussaint Charbonneau. Shields was involved in a virtual mutiny against Sergeant Ordway's authority at River Dubois, greatly disappointing the captains, who evidently expected him as the oldest to display a greater sense of responsibility. During the expedition, however, his skills as a blacksmith, gunsmith, and carpenter were invaluable. "Nothing was more peculiarly useful to us, in various situations," wrote Lewis, "than the skill and ingenuity of this man as an artist, in repairing our guns, accoutrements, &c." Lewis recommended that Congress give Shields a bonus for his services. After the expedition Shields trapped in Missouri for a time with Daniel Boone, a kinsman, then settled in Indiana, where he died and was buried. Clarke (MLCE), 53–54; Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:367; Lange (JS).
Private John B. Thompson (dates unknown). His place of birth and date of joining the expedition are unknown, but he may have lived in Indiana. He seems to have had some experience as a surveyor. Clark refers to him during the expedition as "a valuable member of our party." His postexpedition career is equally obscure; Clark listed him in 1825–28 as "killed." Speculation places him with John McClellan's expedition in the Rockies in 1807. Clarke (MLCE), 354; Majors, 573; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:639.
Private Ebenezer Tuttle (1773–?). Tuttle was born in Connecticut and joined the army in 1803. He was a member of Captain Amos Stoddard's artillery company. The only mention of him in the journals is in a detachment order of May 26, 1804. Possibly he was the unnamed man from Stoddard's company sent back on June 12, 1804; otherwise he was with the return party from Fort Mandan in 1805, as originally planned. Jackson (LLC), 1:237 n. 7; Clarke (MLCE), 62.
Corporal Richard Warfington (1777–?). In the journals his name appears as "Warpenton," "Worthington," "Wortheyton," and other versions. He was born in North Carolina, joined the army in 1799, and was transferred to the Corps of Discovery from Captain John Campbell's company of the Second Infantry Regiment on November 24, 1803, holding the rank of corporal. The captains apparently found him reliable and efficient and decided to put him in charge of the party they intended to send back from some point on the Missouri. That party was not dispatched nearly as soon as originally intended, and on August 4, 1804, Warfington's enlistment expired. Believing that he was the only one of the intended return party who was really trustworthy, the captains asked Warfington not to take his official discharge at that time, so that he could retain his rank and authority over the return group and ensure the safety of the dispatches, journals, and specimens sent back. Warfington remained with the group at Fort Mandan, conducted the return party to St. Louis in 1805, and carried out his command of that body to the captains' complete satisfaction; he even managed to keep alive a prairie dog and four magpies Lewis sent to Jefferson. Lewis recommended that Warfington receive a bonus beyond his regular pay. Clark apparently had no information about him in 1825–28. Clarke (MLCE), 59–60; Lewis to Henry Dearborn, January 15, 1807, Jackson (LLC), 1:364–65, 372 endnote; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], ibid., 2:639; Cutright (LCPN), 377.
Private Peter M. Weiser (1781–?). Weiser, descended from the noted frontier diplomat Conrad Weiser, was born and apparently reared in Pennsylvania. He was probably a member of Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment, stationed at Kaskaskia, before joining the expedition. In spite of some minor disciplinary trouble at River Dubois he was made a member of the permanent party. In 1807 he joined Manuel Lisa's fur-trading venture up the Missouri, and for the next few years he was on the Yellowstone and the Missouri headwaters with Lisa's men, including some old comrades from the expedition. It has been conjectured that he also crossed the Continental Divide to the Snake River valley in Idaho; at any rate, Clark's map of the West (Atlas map 126), published in 1814, shows "Wiser's R." as a tributary of the Snake in western Idaho, in country not visited by the expedition. It is not known whether Clark received the information from Weiser himself or from one of his associates, such as Drouillard or Colter. The river, with the correct spelling, and an Idaho town, still bear his name. Clark listed him in 1825–28 as "killed"; he may have been one of those killed by the Blackfeet while operating out of Lisa's post at the Three Forks of the Missouri in 1810, or perhaps he fell in some later fur-trade skirmish. Clarke (PW); Clarke (MLCE), 59; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:639.
Private William Werner (dates unknown). Often "Warner" in the journals, he may have been born in Kentucky and may have been in the army before joining the Corps; his actual date of joining is uncertain. He fought with John Potts during the River Dubois winter, and he was convicted of being absent without leave at St. Charles, Missouri, at the outset of the expedition. Otherwise his service was apparently satisfactory but unremarkable. He appears briefly in the records after the expedition, having been advanced some money in 1807 by Lewis and allowed the use of a government horse. In 1825–28 Clark understood him to be living in Virginia. Clarke (MLCE), 54; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:639.
Isaac White (ca. 1774–?). White was born in Massachusetts and joined the army in 1801. He was a member of Captain Amos Stoddard's artillery company. The only mention of him in the journals is in a detachment order of May 2, 1804. Possibly he was the man of Stoddard's company sent back on June 12, 1804; otherwise he was with the return party from Fort Mandan in 1805. Jackson (LLC), 1:237 n. 7; Clarke (MLCE), 62.
Private Joseph Whitehouse (ca. 1775–?). An expedition journalist, Whitehouse was probably born in Virginia and went to Kentucky with his family in about 1784. He enlisted officially on January 1, 1804, transferring from Captain Daniel Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment, stationed at Kaskaskia. He was in some sort of disciplinary difficulty during the winter at River Dubois but was allowed to remain with the expedition. During the expedition he often acted as a tailor for the other men. In 1807 in Missouri he was ordered arrested for debt. He later rejoined the army, served in the War of 1812, and deserted in 1817. Clark apparently had no information about him in 1825–28. Clarke (MLCE), 55–56; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:639; Cutright (HLCJ), 242–64.
Private Alexander Hamilton Willard (1778–1865). Born in New Hampshire, he was living in Kentucky when he enlisted in Captain Amos Stoddard's artillery company in 1800. He was tried and convicted on July 12, 1804, of sleeping while on sentry duty; the offense, under the military regimen of the Corps, was punishable by death, but instead he was given one hundred lashes. He was a blacksmith and apparently assisted John Shields in this work during the expedition. Lewis hired him as government blacksmith for the Sauk and Fox Indians in 1808, and the next year he held the same position with the Delawares and Shawnees. He served in the War of 1812 and lived in Missouri and Wisconsin. His marriage in 1807 produced twelve children. In 1852 he emigrated with his family to California and there died and was buried near Sacramento. There is some suggestion that he kept a journal on the expedition, but if so, it is lost. Jackson (LLC), 1:372 n. 26; Clarke (MLCE), 56.
Private Richard Windsor (dates unknown). Often "Winser" or Winsor" in the journals, he may have come from Captain Russell Bissell's company of the First Infantry Regiment. Like many of the other soldiers detailed to the expedition, he officially enlisted for the expedition on January 1, 1804. During the trip he was often assigned as a hunter. He settled in Missouri after the expedition but rejoined the army and served until 1819. In 1825–28 Clark listed him as living on the Sangamon River in Illinois. Clarke (MLCE), 59; Clark's List of Expedition Members [ca. 1825–28], Jackson (LLC), 2:628.
York (ca. 1770–?). York is the only name given for Clark's slave in the journals or any primary document. He seems to have been about the same age as Clark, or a few years younger, and to have been Clark's companion from childhood, in the fashion of the slaveholding South. Clark legally inherited York from his father in 1799. The journals and other primary sources indicate that he was large and strong and perhaps overweight. He seems to have carried a gun and to have performed his full share of the duties with other members of the party; a body servant who could neither defend himself nor carry his share of the load would have been an unacceptable luxury on the expedition. Tales of his sexual prowess among Indian women or of his being the expedition's buffoon rest largely on the racial bias of later historians, not on evidence in the journals. York received his freedom sometime after 1811 and then operated a wagon freight business in Tennessee and Kentucky. By Clark's account, the business failed, and York then decided to rejoin his old master in St. Louis but died of cholera on the way, sometime before 1832. An alternative account has it that he made his way west to the Rockies and was living with the Crows in the 1830s; the tale is unlikely but not wholly impossible. Betts (SY); Clarke (MLCE), 38.
Engagé E. Cann (dates unknown). He appears in Clark's list of engagés under July 4, 1804. Elsewhere in the journals that name appears in versions that have been deciphered as "Carr," "Cane," and "Carn"; some of the variation may be due to Clark's handwriting, not his spelling. Cann was presumably with the return party of 1805. He has been identified as Alexander Carson (ca. 1775–1836), a relative of Christopher "Kit" Carson, on the basis of a second-hand account stating that Carson claimed to have come to the mountains with Lewis and Clark; there is no more direct evidence. Cann was perhaps born in Mississippi and wintered with the Arikaras in 1809–10. In 1811 he joined the overland Astorians led by Wilson Price Hunt, crossing the Rockies with them, and spent a number of years trapping in the mountains and on the Columbia, working for the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1833 he settled permanently in the Willamette Valley in Oregon and was killed by Indians in 1836. Clarke (MLCE), 68–69; Jackson (LLC), 1:373 endnote; Stoller.
Engagé Charles Caugee (dates unknown). He is mentioned in a list of engagés under July 4, 1804, and may have been with the return party from Fort Mandan in 1805. Nothing else is known of him. Clarke (MLCE), 68.
Engagé Joseph Collin (dates unknown). He should not be confused with John Collins, an enlisted man with the permanent party. Collin is listed as an engagé on May 26, 1804, and in no other list. Because there is no record of his being paid, he may have been paid in cash when discharged in the fall of 1804, at either the Arikara or Mandan villages. He may also be the man picked up at the Arikara villages on the expedition's return in 1806. A Joseph Collin from the Montreal area in Canada was married at Portage des Sioux, Missouri, in 1818. See also the sketch of La Liberté, below. Clarke (MLCE), 69–70.
Engagé Jean Baptiste Deschamps (dates unknown). He was the "patroon"—foreman—of the French boatmen, presumably because of his experience and maturity. Virtually nothing is known of him, though he may have been residing with his wife at St. Charles, Missouri, in 1792. Clarke (MLCE), 63.
Engagé Charles Hebert (dates unknown). He is listed as an engagé on May 26, 1804, and nowhere else. Possibly he is the "Charlo" of Clark's list of July 4, 1804. He has been identified as a Canadian who married in St. Louis in 1792 and may have lived near St. Charles or Portage des Sioux, Missouri. Since there is no record of his being paid, he may have been discharged at the Mandan villages in the fall of 1804 and paid in cash. Perhaps he returned with the return party of 1805, having wintered with the expedition at Fort Mandan. Clarke (MLCE), 69.
Engagé Jean Baptiste La Jeunesse (?–1806?). He is also "La Guness" and, apparently, "Lasones," in the journals. He was probably from St. Rose, Quebec, Canada. In 1797 in St. Louis he married the sister of Etienne Malboeuf, another expedition engagé. La Jeunesse was discharged, and presumably paid off, at the Mandan villages in the fall of 1804 and set off with Paul Primeau downriver in a canoe on November 6. He may have stopped off at the Arikara villages or elsewhere for the winter. He was apparently dead by September 1807, when his wife remarried. Clarke (MLCE), 64–65.
Engagé La Liberté (dates unknown). An engagé of this name was sent on July 29, 1804, to the Oto Indians in northeastern Nebraska to invite them to confer with the captains. He took the opportunity to quit the expedition, and though a party was sent to apprehend him, he escaped and appears no more in the expedition record. Attempts to identify him further have mired in confusion about his actual name. La Liberté seems to have been a common name among the French Canadians and Mississippi Valley French involved in the fur trade and river travel at the time. Thus, a La Liberté was working for the North West Company in Canada in 1799 and might be the same man. The engagé who left the party spoke the Oto language to some extent, so he must have lived among them for a while. His singularly appropriate name may be only a dit name, not a formal surname. He does not appear under that name in the list of engagés in the detachment order of May 26, 1804; this could mean that he was hired later, perhaps picked up from some party of traders headed down the Missouri. However, he may only be concealed on the May 26 list under another name, especially if La Liberté is only a dit name. The list of July 4, 1804, in Clark's Field Notes gives "Joseph La bartee," and also "J. Le bartee"; each time the name has an asterisk beside it. On the first occurrence, "Le bartee" is assigned to a pirogue, the second time to the large keelboat. Did Clark err and list the same man twice, or were there two men with the same surname or dit name? Did the asterisk indicate the error, or refer to the similarity of names? Ordway refers to the deserter first on July 29, 1804; Quaife gives the name as "Jo Barter," but Ordway's manuscript version can as readily be interpreted as "Bartee." At any rate, Ordway later calls him "La Liberty," confirming that he is one of the possible two "Le bartees." Donald Jackson has uncovered, in an 1819 Illinois legal document, a reference to "Joseph Callin dit La Liberty of portage des Scioux." This could easily be the engagé Joseph Collin of the expedition, especially since he is not mentioned by the name Collin in the Field Notes list of July 4. This could explain how La Liberté became "Joseph Le bartee" in that list.
The question remains, however, whether there were two men with this dit name or only one, and whether, if there were two, Collin was the deserter. (Technically, he was not a deserter in the military sense because he was a hired boatman rather than an enlisted man.) There is no record of Collin's having been paid, which would have been the case if he had deserted, but it could also mean that, like some other engagés, he was discharged at the Arikara or Mandan villages and paid in cash. A man picked up at the Arikaras in 1806, who had perhaps been with the expedition in 1804, could have been Collin; this man, in any case, could hardly have been the deserter, since he would have avoided the expedition, and they would not have given him a ride home. Thus it is quite possible that Joseph Collin bore the dit name La Liberté and is referred to as "Joseph Le bartee" by Clark because of this. It is also possible, however, that there was another engagé with that same dit name, and if so, either might have been the deserter. Since he was a civilian employee, not an enlisted soldier, his desertion was not quite so serious as that of Moses Reed, which occurred at about the same time, although La Liberté did take a "public horse" with him when he was sent to the Otos. A Joseph La Liberté was married in St. Louis in 1835, and a La Liberté, aged 60, was buried there in 1837.
If there are two La Libertés, and Collin is one of them, which other engagé is concealed under this name? One is clearly named Joseph, while the initial of the other appears to be "J." Besides Collin there is no other "Joseph" among the known engagés. The only other whose initial might be "J." is Baptiste La Jeunesse, whose actual given name was presumably Jean-Baptiste. However, he apparently appears as "Lasones" in the same July 4 list as the two Le bartees. The discrepancies in both name and number between the principal lists of engagés do not allow any certainty on this matter. Quaife (MLJO), 102; Clarke (MLCE), 63–64, 69–70; Jackson, "La Liberté Identified," typescript.
Engagé Etienne Malboeuf (ca. 1775–?). He was from Lac de Sable, Canada, and his mother may have been an Indian; he was baptized in St. Charles, Missouri, in 1792. In 1804, he was residing in Kaskaskia, Illinois. Like most of the other engagés, he returned from Fort Mandan in 1805. Clarke (MLCE), 65.
Engagé Peter Pinaut (ca. 1776–?). Undoubtedly Pierre to his fellow Frenchmen, he is presumably the "Charles pineau" of Lewis's financial accounts. He may also be the "Charlo" mentioned in one list in Clark's Field Notes. Pinaut was the illegitimate son of a French father and a Missouri Indian mother, and was baptized in St. Louis in 1790, suggesting that he grew up in the Indian country on the Missouri. The only mention of him in the journals is in the detachment order of May 26, 1804. Lewis's Account [August 5, 1807], Jackson (LLC), 2:422; Clarke (MLCE), 65–66.
Engagé Paul Primeau (dates unknown). He is variously "Primaut," "Preemau," and "Premor" in the journals. He came from Chateauguay, Canada, and was married in St. Louis in 1799. He was discharged, and presumably paid off, at the Mandan villages in the fall of 1804, and on November 6, with Jean-Baptiste La Jeunesse, set out downriver in a canoe for St. Louis. He may have wintered with the Arikaras or elsewhere. In 1807 he was probably in Missouri. Clarke (MLCE), 66.
Engagé François Rivet (ca. 1757–1852). Born at Montreal, Rivet, also referred to as "Reevey" and such variations, came to the Mississippi Valley at an early age and engaged in hunting and trading in Louisiana. He may have left the return party of 1805 at the Arikara villages. He soon headed up the Missouri again, perhaps with Manuel Lisa's trading company, for about 1809 he was in the Flathead country of northwest Montana, where he married and fathered two sons. In 1813 he was employed by the North West Company among the Flatheads, and was still there in 1824, working as both trapper and interpreter. In 1829 he transferred to Fort Colville on the upper Columbia, and in 1832, at the age of seventy-five, he was placed in charge of the post by the Hudson's Bay Company. After retiring in 1838 he settled in the Willamette Valley in Oregon. Clarke (MLCE), 66–67; Munnick (FR).
Engagé Peter Roi (dates unknown). There were many early settlers in the "Illinois country" with the surname Roi or Roy, descended from pioneers of French and Indian blood who were there even before the founding of St. Louis, having come from Canada. Pierre Roy, born in 1786 at Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, may be the man, but there is no evidence. Clark also gives the name as "Roie." On August 21, 1806, at the Arikara villages in South Dakota, the returning expedition encountered one of their former engagés, whom Clark identifies as "Rokey"; he had probably stayed behind when the return party of 1805 went down to St. Louis and now returned to Missouri with the expedition. It has been suggested that his name was Rocque, a name that appears on no expedition roster. John Ordway also refers to this man by name, and in Quaife's edition the name is given as "Ross." Examination of the manuscript shows that Ordway's letters can easily be interpreted as "Roie" or even "Roei." "Rokey" was therefore probably Peter Roi, and there is no need to search for Rocque or Ross. This interpretation is strengthened by the fact that Roi was not among the expedition engagés who received their pay in St. Louis in 1805. Clarke (MLCE), 67, 70; Quaife (MLJO), 392; Jackson (LLC), 1:237 n. 7.