August 31, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

August 31, 1804


31st of August Friday    rose early    a fair Day—    a curioes Society among this nation worthey of remark, i,'e,' formed of their active deturmined young men, with a vow never to give back, let the danger or deficuelty be what it may, in war parties they always go forward, without Screening themselves behind trees or anything else, to this vow they Strictly adheer dureing their Lives, an Instance of it, is last winter on a march in Crossing the Missourei a hole was in the ice immediately in their Course which might easily be avoided by going around, the fore most man went on and was drowned, the others were caught by their party and draged around—in a battle with the Crow de Curbo Indians out of 22 of this Society 18 was killed, the remaining four was draged off by their friends, and are now here—    they assocate together Camp together and are merry fellows, 〈to become one of the Society〉    This Custom the Souex learned of the de Carbours inhabiting the Cout Noie or Black mountain    all the Chiefs Delivered a Speech agreeing to what we Said &. &. & beged which I answered from my notes. We made or gav a certificate to two Brave men the attendants of the Great Chief    gave them Some tobacco and prepared a Commission for Mr. Darion to make a peace with all the 〈Chief〉 nations in the neighbourhood, Mahas, Porncases [Ponca], Panie, Loups, Ottoes and Missouries—    & to take to the President Some of the Gt Chiefs of each nations who would accompany him    allso to do certain other things, and wrot Instructions—    gave him a flag and Some Cloaths—    the Chiefs Sent all their young men home, and they Stayed for Mr. Dorion—    in the evening late we gave the Comsn. [commission] & Instruction to Mr. Durion & he recved them with pleasa [pleasure?], & promised to do all which was necessary. I took a Vocabulary of the Seouex language, and a fiew answers to Some queries I put to Mr. Pitte Dorion respecting the War No. Situati[on] Trad &c. &. of that people which is divided into 20 tribes possessing Sepperate interest    they are numerous between 2 & 3000 men, divided into 20 tribes who view their interests [1] as defferent    Some bands at War with Nations which other bands are at peace—    This nation call themselves— Dar co tar . The french call them Souex    Their language is not perculiar to themselves as has been Stated, a great many words is the Same with the Mahas , Ponckais , Osarge, Kanzies &c.    Clearly proves to me those people had the Same Oregean [origin]— [2] this nations inhabit the red river of Hudson bay St. Peters [Minnesota River] Missippi, Demoin R. Jacque & on the Missourie they are at War with 20 nations, and at piece with 8 only—    they recved their trade from the British except a few on the Missourie    they furnish Beaver Martain [3] Loues [loups, i.e., wolves] [orter [4] [otter), Pekon [5] Bear and Deer and have forty Traders at least among them. The names of the Different bands of this nation are— [6]

1st    Che che ree or Bois ruley [Brulé] (the present band) Inhabit the Souex Jacque & Demoin Rivers

2nd    Ho in de bor to or poles. They live on the head of the Suouex River

3rd    Me ma car jo (or make fence on the river.)    the Country near the Big bend of the Missouri.

4th    Sou on te ton (People of the Prarie)    they rove North of the Missourie in the Praries above.

5th    Wau pa Coo do (Beeds)    they live near the Prarie de Chaine [Prairie du Chien] on the Missippi

6th    Te tar ton (or Village of Prarie) on the waters of the Mississippi above Prare de Chain (Dog Prarie)

7th    Ne was tar ton (Big Water Town) on the Mississippi above the mouth of the St. Peters River.

8th    Wau pa to (Leaf Nation). 10 Leagues up St. Peters

9th    Cass car ba (White man) 35 Lgs. up St Peters

10    Mi ac cu op si ba (Cut Bank) reside on the head of St. Peters river

11    Sou on—    on St. Peters in the Praries

12th    Se si toons—    40 Leagues up St Peters.

The names of the othe[r] tribes I could not get In

31st August Continud

The Distance of the Sun and moon    the moon West

Time       Distance
H.     M      S.   d       '       "
11    12    18   41    51    00
11    14    23     "     48    00
  "     15    49     "     46    00
  "     16    42     "     45    30
  "     17    52     "     46    30
  "     19    32     "     46    30

31st August 1804 Speeches [7]

at 8 oClock the Chiefs and warriers met us in Council all with their pipes with the Stems presented towards us, after a Silence of abt. [blank] The great Chief Dressed himself in his fine Cloathes and two warriers in the uniform and armer of their Nation Stood on his left with a War Club & Speer each, & Dressed in feathurs.

The Shake hand 1st Chief Spoke

My Father .    I am glad to here the word of my G. F. [great father, i.e. the President of the United States] and all my warriers and men about me are also glad.

My Father. —    now I see my two fathers th[e] Children, of my great father, & what you have Said I believe and all my people do believ also—.

My Father —    We are verry glad you would take pitty on them this Day, we are pore and have no powder and ball.

My Father. —    We are verry Sorry our women are naked and all our children, no petiecoats or cloathes—

My Father —    You do not want me to Stop the boats going up if we See, I wish a man out of your [Dorion] boat to bring about a peace, betwe[en] all the Indians, & he can do So.

My Father —    Listen to what I say    I had an English medal when I went to See them, I went to the Spanoriards    they give me a meadel and Some goods, I wish you would do the Same for my people.—

My Father. —    I have your word    I am glad of it & as Soon as the Ice is don running I will go down & take with me, Some great men of the other bands of the Soues

My Father —    I will be glad to See My Grand Father but our Women has got no Cloathes and we have no Powder & Ball, take pity on us this day.

My Father —    I want to listen and observe wath [what] you Say, we want our old friend (Mr. Durion) to Stay with us and bring the Indians with my Self down this Spring.

My Father — I opend my ears and all my yound men and we wish you to let Mr. Durion Stay, and a Perogue for to take us down in the Spring. [8]

The P[s]peach of th White Crain Mar to 〈Se〉 ree 2d Chief

My Fathr's listen to my word, I am a young man and do not intend to talk much, but will Say a few words.

My Father —    my father was a Chief, and you have made me a Chief    I now think I am a chief agreeable to your word as I am a young man and inexperienced, cannot say much    What the Great Chief has Said is as much as I could Say—

Par nar ne Ar par be    Struck by the Pana [Pawnee] 3d Chief

My father's    I cant Speek much    I will Speek a litle to you

My fathers. —    ther's the Chiefs you have made high, we will obey them, as also my young men, the Pipe I hold in my hand is the pipe of my father, I am pore as you See, take pity on me    I believe what you have Said

My fathers —    You think the great meadel you gave My great Chief pleases me and the small one you gave me gives me the heart to go with him to See my Great father. What the Great Chief has Said is all I could Say. I am young and Cant Speek.

A Warrier by name Tar ro mo nee Spoke

My Father — I am verry glad you have made this man our great Chief, the British & Spaniards have acknowledged him before but never Cloathed him.    you have Cloathed him, he is going to see our Great father, We do not wish to spear [spare?] him but he must go and see his great father

My Fathr's, my great Chief must go and See his Gd fathzer, give him some of your milk [whiskey] to Speek to his young men,

My Father.    our people are naked, we wish a trader to Stop among us, I would be verry glad our two fathers would give us some power and ball and some Milk with the flag.

Speech of Ar ca we char chi the half man    3d Chief

My fathr's    I do not Speak verry well, I am a pore man and [one word illegible, crossed out]

My Fathr's.    I was on[c]e a Chiefs boy    now I am a man and a Chief of Some note

My Fathr's—    I am glad you have made my old Chief a fine and a great man, I have been a great warrier but now I here your words, I will berry my hatchet and be at peace with all & go with my Great Chief to see my great father.

My fath—s.    When I was a young man I went to the Spaniards to see ther fassion, I like you talk and will pursue you advice, Since you have given me a meadal. I will tell you the talk of the Spaniards

My Father's.—    I am glad my Grand father has sent you to the read [red?] people on this river, and that he has given us a flag large and handsom the Shade of which we can Sit under—

My Fathr's.—    We want one thing for our nation very much    we have no trader, and often in want of good[s]

My Fathers —    I am glad as well as all around me to here your word, and we open our ears, and I think our old Frend Mr. Durion can open the ears of the other bands of Soux.    but I fear those nations above will not open their ears, and you cannot I fear open them—.

My Fathers. You tell us that you wish us to make peace with the Ottoes & M. [Missouri]    You have given 5 Medles    I wish you to give 5 Kigz [kegs?]with them—

My Fathers.—    My horses are pore running the Buffalow    give us Some powder and ball to hunt with, and leave old Mr. Durion with us to get us a trader

My Father.—    The Spaniards did not keep the Medal of the T[o]ken of our Great Chief when they gave him one    You have Dressed him and I like it    I am pore & take pitey on me—.

My Fathers—    I am glad you have put heart in our great Chief he can now speak with confidence, I will support him in all your Councils—

after all the chief presented the pipe to us

The Half man rose & spoke as follows viz.

My Father —    What you have Said is well, but you have not given 〈me a paper〉 any thing to the attendants of the Great Chiefs—

after which

from White river to the Isd. of Ceder in the Great Bend  
  of the Missourie Called the Grand detour is about     30 Leajus [9]
from thence to Mo: of the Chien R: 1st Aricaras is ab.     28 do
& To R au (Morrow) [Moreau?] S. S. [10]     25 do
To the upper Aricaras Village [11]     64 Lgs
to the Mandins     10
to the Wanutaries [12]       3 do
    480 miles

In the evening late we gave Mr. Dorion a bottle of whiskey and himself with the Chiefs Crossed the river and Camped on the opposit bank    Soon after a violent Wind from the N W. accompanied with rain [13]


We gave a Certificate to two Men of War, attendants on the Chief    gave to all the Chiefs a Carrot of Tobacco—    had a talk with Mr. Dorion, who agreed to Stay and Collect the Chiefs from as many Bands of Soux as he coud this fall & bring about a pea[ce] between the Sciuex & their neighbours &. &c. &c.

after Dinner we gave Mr. Peter Darion, a Comission to act with a flag & some Cloathes & Provisions & instructions to bring about a peace with the Scioux Mahars, Panies, Ponceries, Ottoes & Missouries—    and to employ any trader to take Some of the Cheifs of each or as many of those nations as he Could Perticularly the Sceiouex [NB: down to Washn]—    I took a Vocabulary of the Scioux Language—    and the Answer to a fiew quaries Such a[s] refured to ther Situation, Trade, number War, &c. &c.— This Nation is Divided into 20 Tribes, possessing Seperate interests—    Collectively they are noumerous Say from 2 to 3000 men, their interests are so unconnected that Some bands are at war with Nations which other bands are on the most friendly terms. This Great Nation who the French has given the nickname of Sciouex, Call them selves Dar co tar    their language is not peculiarly their own, they Speak a great number of words, which is the Same in every respect with the Maha, Poncaser, Osarge & Kanzies.    which Clearly proves that those nation at Some Period not more that a century or two past [once?] the Same nation—    Those Dar ca ter's or Scioux inhabit or rove over the Countrey on the Red river of Lake Winipeck, St. Peter's & the West of the Missippie above Prarie De chain [NB: Prairie de Chien ] heads of River Demoin, and the Missouri and its waters on the N. Side for a great extent. They are only at peace with 8 Nations, & agreeable to their Calculation at war with twenty odd.—    Their trade Coms from the British, except this Band and one on Demoin who trade with the Traders of St Louis—    The furnish Beaver Martain, 〈Loues〉 [NB: Wolfs] Pikon [NB: pichon], [14] Bear and Deer Skins—and have about 40 Traders among them. The Dar co tar or Sceouex rove & follow the Buffalow raise no corn or any thing else the woods & praries affording a Suffcency, the eat Meat, and Substitute the Ground potato which grow in the Plains for bread [15]

The names of the Different Tribes or Canoes of the Sceoux or Dar co tar Nation—

1st    Che cher ree Yank ton (or bois 〈rulay〉 [NB: brulé]) now present inhabit the Sciouex & Demoin rivers and the Jacques. [NB: 200 men]

2nd    Hoin de borto (Poles) they 〈live〉 rove on the heads of Souix & Jacqus Rivers

3rd    Me ma car jo (make fence of the river) rove on the Countrey near the big bend of the Missouries

4th    Sou on, Teton (People of the Prarie) the rove in the Plains N. of the Riv Missouries above this—

5th    Wau pa coo 〈do〉 tar (Leaf beds) the live near the Prare de Chain [X: ien] near the Missippi

6th    Te tar ton (or village of Prarie) rove on the waters of the Mississippi above Prarie de Chain

7th    Ne was tar ton (big water Town) rove on the Missippi above the St. Peters River

8th    Wau pa tow (Leaf nation) live 10 Leagues up St Peters river

9th    Cas Car ba (white man) live 35 Leagus up St Peters river

10th    Mi ca cu op si ba (Cut bank) rove on the head of St. Peters

11th    Sou on (—) rove on St peters river in the Prareis

12th    Sou si toons (—) live 40 Legus up the St peters river

The names of the other bands neither of the Souex's interpters could inform me.    in the evening late we gave Mr. Dourion a bottle of whiskey, & he with the Cheifs & his Son Crossed the river and Camped on the Opposit bank—    Soon after night a violent wind from the N W. with rain    the rain Continud the greater part of the night    The river a riseing a little.

〈1st September Satturday〉

Mr. Durion left his Kettle which was given him, we Sent it to him〉

omited to put in the 31st of August in Place [16]

August the 31st 1804

after the Indians got their Brackfast the Chiefs met and arranged themselves in a row with elligent pipes of peace all pointing to our Seets, we Came foward and took our Seets, the Great Cheif The Shake han rose and Spoke to Some length aproving what we had Said and promissing to pursue the advice.

Mar to ree 2d Cheif (White Crain [NB: White Crane ]) rose and made a Short Speech and refured to the great Chief

Par nar ne Ar par be (Struck by the Pania) 3rd Cheif rose and made a Short Speech—

Ar ca we char che (the half man) 3d Chief rose & spoke at Some length. Much to the purpose.

The othe Cheif Said but little    one of the warreirs Spoke after all was don & promissed to Support the Chiefs, the promisd to go and See their Great father in the Spring with Mr. Dorion, and to do all things we had 〈promised〉 advised them to do.    and all Concluded by telling the distresses of ther nation by not haveing traders, & wished us to take pity on them, the wanted Powder Ball & a little milk [NB: (rum milk of great father means Spirits]

last night the Indians Danced untill late    in their dances we gave them [NB: throw in to them as is usual] Som knives Tobaco & belts & tape & Binding with which they wer Satisfied


Observed time and distance of ☉'s and ☽'s nearest limbs, with Sextant.    the ☉ West.

  Time       Distance
  h      m      s    
A.M. 11    12    18   41°    51'    "
   "      14    23    "      48
   "      15    49    "      47    45
   "      16    42    "      46    30
   "      17    52    "      46    30
   "      19    32    "      45    45

Friday 31st August 1804.    pleasant morning    the Chiefs not ready to Speak till half past 7 o.C. at which time the talk of the chiefs [18] beginning at the oldest the we-u-che—head chief, of the Bob Brulee [19] tribe    my great father, his 2 sons I See before me this day. You See me, and the rest of the Chiefs & warries    we are verry poor, we have neither powder, Ball or knifves, nor the women at the village has no Cloaths nor our children to war [wear] and wishes that my fathers Sons would be charitable enofe to Give them Some things, as his Brothers gave him a fine Suit of cloaths with a flag, and a Meaddel, or Gave him permission to Stop the first trading boat or pearogue that would come up the river to trade with them &-c—    & he Said he would make peace with or between the paunies and Mahars, as his nation, and he would bring chiefs from each nation to the Seat of Government next Spring with him & his chiefs, and that his Situation was Such that he could not leave his nation to go before Spring; and he Said if he Spoke to them it would be better than it would for his Great fathers Sons, for they would hear him better, he Said likewise that he went to the English & they gave him a Meddal & cloaths & but when he went to the Spanish they never Gave him any thing to keep the meddal from his Skin, he Says that now you gave me a meddal & cloaths but we are poor as the trader did not come to bring us goods for Some time I wish you would consider & give me Something for our Squaws at home my Brothers,—    the Captains told them that they were not traders, that they had only come to make the road open for the traders to come & that in a Short time their would be pleanty of traders on with Goods and would Supply their wants on better terms than ever they had got them before.

2nd Chief Speaks    Mot, thouge, the white Crain    my fathers word I have listened to yesterday, and to day it pleases me to See how you have dressed our old Chief. I am a young man, I do not want to take much, my father has made me a chief. I had much Sence    But now I think I have more than ever, But what the old chief Said I will agree to & Say & doe as he & you have told me &c &C and I wish you to take pity on us for we are poor—

3rd Chief Speaks    His name if pan-dan-apappy —    I am a young man and know but little, & cannot Speak well, But what you have told the old chief I will hear to & will hear him &c.

4th Chief Speaks    Ane, a, wish, a Shaddie La, dom, my fathers I cannot Speak Much to you, but little, you make our old chief higher than all of us; I am Glad to See him So finely dressed by you & will agree to what you told him, and will doe Every thing you & he Says &

5th Chief Speaks    his name is Mede, thunk, a pertizon—    my father the Meddel you gave me gives me a heart to go with my old Chief to See my Great Father

4th Chief began again, I am not rich, but poor, I wish you would have pitty on me, I was chief when I was a boy, now I am a man    you See before you (my 2 fathers)    you made my old chief So fine that I will not go to war but take his advice, and burry the tomahawk and knife in the ground and go with my old chief to See my Great father, when I was a young man I went to the Spanish; and did not like their Sayings So well as yours &.C. I am glad you Come to See my fathers land and all his red children, and the flag you Gave us it is So large as to Cover our children, from the heat of the Sun, he Says also that he is willing to make peace with his neighbours, the Zottous and Missouries &c. &c.    but the fine meddels that you gave us we will Give or Show them, So that they need not take our horses &.c.    we have got our horses & bows & arrows here but we want a little powder & lead to kill the Buffelows for our horses are poor at this Season & cannot run after them as they can in the Spring &C—    their is one tribe of red men my fathers that have not their Ears open, but the old chief & us will do the best we can for you, with regard to the punkaws nation & all others as far as in our power lies &.C—

51y—    a worrier Speakes    my father I am glad to See how fine you have made the old chief, before now I could not Spare him but now I am willing to let him Go to See my Great father;—my father as you gave us a fine flag we wish you would give a little powder and a little of our Great fathers milk (or whiskey) that we may rejoice under our Great fathers Collours &.C. &.C. when all was over the most of the warries went across the river, the Chiefs remained till dusk    the Commanding officers Shewed them the air gun and a great many other curiousityes, which pleased them verry much, our Intreperter old Mr Dunienoir left us & went with his Son in to this nation, the Comdg. Officers Gave the Indians com [commission?] more Tobacco & corn to take them to their lodges, &.C—    at dark a blue crain fly [20] over attempted to lite on the mast of the B. Boat    missed it and fill on the Boat    one of the men caught and Gave it to one of the Indians, the pearogue crossed with the chiefs and all landed Safe on the opposite Shore, where they camped, directly after a hard Storm arose of the wind and rain from the N. W. which lasted 2 hours.    rained considerable part of the night, a considerable quantity of fish caught at this place, gave the Indians Some of them &.c    George Shannon & Colter has not joined us yet,—

The names of the chiefs above mentioned 〈&.C〉 in Indian

N. B. The above place where the last Counsel was held with the Souix nation, as named by Capt. Clark. Calamel Bluff, [21] Minral

N. B.    their was Several of the Indians which had Strings of White Bears [22] claws around their necks, which was 3 inches in length, & Strung as close as possable to each other on the String all around their necks.—    〈the〉 all those nations have one language for considerable part of their words &C.


Friday 31st.    A clear morning. The Indians remained with us all day, and got our old Frenchman [23] to stay and go with their chief to the city of Washington. Some of them had round their necks strings of the white bear's claws, some of the claws three inches long.


Friday 31st    a pleasant morning.

Friday August 31st    This morning we had pleasant Weather.    The Indians sett off for their Towns early & crossed the River; taking a friendly leave of us all, The Indians were of the Soiux Nation, and Tribe of Debois-B-ruly, or the Burning Woods.— [25] The Council Bluff lies in Latitude 41° 17' North

1. An astronomical table appears here at the top of document 49 of the Field Notes, after which the August 31 entry continues. Clark used asterisks to preserve continuity. The text is here brought together and the table placed at the end. (back)
2. Clark's information undoubtedly came from the two Dorions and other traders. The Dakotas (Sioux), Poncas, Omahas, Osages, and Kansas all spoke languages belonging to the Siouan language family. However, these languages were not all mutually intelligible, and the separations must have occurred much earlier than he imagined. A summary of the linguistic relations among Plains Indians is Hollow & Parks. (back)
3. The marten is Martes americana. Apparently the explorers saw no living specimen on the expedition. Burroughs, 73–74; Jones et al., 274–77. (back)
4. The river otter is Lutra canadenis, first encountered on October 21, 1804. Jones et al., 307–9. (back)
5. "Pekan" usually refers to the fisher, Martes pennanti, while the term "picou" seems to be for the lynx, Lynx canadensis. Criswell, 64; Burroughs, 73. (back)
6. The divisional names recorded by Clark reflect the complex nature of what the whites called the "Sioux Nation." In historic times these people spread from western Minnesota through the Dakotas to western Nebraska, eastern Wyoming and Montana, and eventually to Colorado and Kansas. Calling themselves Dak'ota or Lak'ota , signifying "allies," they were the most numerous branch of the Siouan linguistic family. On the etymology of the word "Sioux" see Ives Goddard, "The Study of Native North American Ethnonymy," in 1980 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, ed. Elisabeth Tooker (Washington, 1980) p. 105.

On linguistic grounds, the Dakotas may be classified in three regional divisions from east to west: Santee, Yankton-Yanktonai, and Teton. Later in the nineteenth century the Dakotas expressed their common kinship by referring to themselves as the "Seven Council Fires," although at no time are they known to have had a central government. Four of the seven "council fires" were Santee: Mdewakantons, Waḣpekutes, Sissetons, and Waḣpetons; the other three were the Yanktons, Yanktonais, and Tetons.

Throughout the eighteenth century the Tetons, Yanktons, and Yanktonais had been moving west, making the transition from a woodlands and prairie mode of life to that of high plains buffalo hunters. In Lewis and Clark's time the Tetons were still to be found on both sides of the Missouri; by mid-century they had moved almost entirely west of the river and had themselves subdivided into seven named groups.

The group names recorded by Clark here and in his "Estimate" (see Fort Mandan Miscellany) reflect the development of Dakota society at the beginning of the nineteenth century and differ significantly from the observations of later recorders. Clark's list of twelve names includes seven identifiable as Santee, three Yankton-Yanktonai, and two Teton. Names later associated only with the Teton ("Burned Thigh" and Sa'oni, numbers 1 and 11) are here given as Yanktonai and Yankton names, respectively. Certain group names transferred throughout historic times from one Dakota division to another, reflecting the fluid nature of the autonomous bands that collectively defined the structure of Dakota society.

The division names in Clark's list are here identified as far as possible, making comparative use of Clark's "Estimate" as well as of band name lists compiled by J. N. Nicollet in 1838–39. See DeMallie.

Che che ree [Yankton] (conjectural form: sic'aŋġu ihaŋkt'uŋwaŋna), "burned thigh little end village." According to Clark's "Estimate," this group was a subdivision of the Yanktonais.

Ho in de borto (conjectural form: huŋkpat'ina), "little campers at the opening of the circle." Clark's Estimate" gives this group as a subdivision of the Yanktons. Regarding the name "poles," Nicollet recorded a Yanktonai band called "those who bring the poles of lodges." DeMallie, 256–57.

Me ma car jo (mnik'owoju), "planters by water." This group was a subdivision of the Tetons; Nicollet recorded the "Minikanye oju" as a band of the "Saones" group of the Tetons. DeMallie, 260.

Sou on te ton (sa'oni t'íntat'uŋwaŋ ), "sa'oni prairie village." A subdivision of the Tetons. The meaning of sa'oni is uncertain.

Wau pa Coo do (wahpe k'ute), "leaf shooters." A subdivision of the Santees.

Te tar ton (t'ínta t'uŋwaŋ ), "prairie village." Given on Clark's "Estimate" as a subdivison of the Mdewakanton group of Santees. Nicollet concurs. DeMallie, 256.

Ne was tar ton (conjectural form: mde wak'aŋ t'uŋwaŋ ), "sacred lake village." A subdivision of the Santees. Clark's "Estimate" spells the name "Mindawarcarton"; assuming this is the name intended, Clark's writing here is very confused. However, spellings on the table are on the whole phonetically more accurate than those in this list.

Wau pa to (wahpe t'uŋwaŋ ), "leaf village." A subdivision of the Santees.

Cass car ba (conjectural form: kaskapa), "strikers." From their location at the head of the Minnesota River they were apparently a subdivision of the Santees, although this name does not appear in the later literature. Clark's apparent translation, "white man," is not understandable. It is possible that Clark's Dakota spelling is again confused and is intended to represent the group he calls "Kee-uk-sah" on his "Estimate" (k'iyuksa), "break in two," a Mdewankanton band.

Mi ca cu op si ba (maya kicaksa), "bank cut in two." A subdivision of the Santees, given by Nicollet as a Sisseton band. DeMallie, 256.

Sou on (sa'oni), meaning uncertain. Clark's "Estimate" gives them as a subdivision of the Yanktons. Nicollet lists this group as a Yanktonai band and translates the name as "the people who whiten themselves." DeMallie, 257.

Se si toons (sisit'uŋwaŋ ), etymology unknown. A subdivision of the Santees.

Since the Lewis and Clark journals are themselves used as primary sources by historians and anthropologists, it is not in every case possible to verify group names and locations. Much of the information in this list probably came from the Dorions. Hodge, 1:376–80; Hassrick; Abel (TN); Anderson (EDM); Hyde (RCF). The conference is ably covered in Ronda (LCAI), 23–26. (back)
7. The speeches here recorded are on document 50 of the Field Notes, and are placed by date. "Augt. 31" and "White R" are at the bottom of the reverse of document 50, and "Shannon" in the lower right-hand corner, either Biddle or Clark. Also the following figures:

Some of the names may be identified linguistically:

Shake Hand (nap'e škaŋ namna), perhaps "shaking hand" (literally, "hand-moves-rips"). Clark's "Estimate" lists him as the principal chief of the "Yank-ton,-sa-char-hoo," a Yanktonai band.

White Crain Mar to Se see (mat'o ġi), "yellow (brown) bear." The name probably refers to the grizzly bear, often called in English, "white bear." "White Crain" may perhaps be a translator's error for "White Bear."

Par nar ne Ar par be ( p'anani ap'api ), "struck by the Ree (Arikara)."

Tar ro mo nee (conjectural form: t'uŋk'aŋ hómni), "turning rock."

Ar ca we char chi (hanke wic'aša), "half man."

8. The date "March 2" is written upside-down under this paragraph. (back)
9. This table following the speeches may represent approximations based on traders' information, or Clark's own estimates after reaching the Mandan villages in October 1804. The points named will be noted on the appropriate dates. (back)
10. The Moreau River is on the larboard side going upriver. (back)
11. In Lewis and Clark's time the Arikara villages were by no means so widely separated as these figures indicate. The information may have been out of date or simply erroneous. (back)
12. The "Wanutaries" are the Hidatsas (Minitaris). (back)
13. This paragraph is at the beginning of document 51 of the Field Notes. (back)
14. Biddle has made most of his emendations in red in this entry and also has crossed out some of Clark's words in order to substitute his own. (back)
15. The first mention of Psoralea esculenta Pursh, breadroot. Fernald, 898. It is known by a variety of common names such as white apple, pomme blanche, pomme de prairie, and prairie turnip. McDermott (GMFV), 124–25; Steyermark, 897. Lewis describes it fully on May 8, 1805. (back)
16. Clark started to write his entry of September 1, 1804, in Codex B, then realized that he had failed to include an account of the council under August 31. (back)
17. Lewis's observation from Codex O, made at the same point as the observation for August 30, since they did not move on this date. (back)
18. Ordway's names for the chiefs differs from Clark's and he is the only enlisted man to provide such detail. Ordway's "we-u-che" or "Weu-cha" (or "weucha, La librator" in the previous entry), called the head chief, is apparently not the same as Clark's head chief, Shake Hand. It is the Yankton term wic'á, "male," and thus may not signify an actual person. "Mot, thouge" or "Mathuga," White Crane, is Clark's "Mar to Se ree," with the translation probably a mistake for "white bear," that is, the grizzly bear. But Ordway's term may be Yankton magát'aŋka, "big goose" (for the swan). "Pan-dan-apappy" or "Pandan, a pappya," is probably Clark's "Par nar ne Ar par be" ( p'anani ap'api ), "Struck by the Ree (Arikara)." Ordway's "Ane, a, wish, a Shaddie La, dom" or "Anckas, week, a chappa," is Clark's "Ar ca we char chi" (haŋké wic'áša), "The Half Man." "Mede, thunk a pertizon" or "Mead, a, tuncka" is a name not given by Clark, nor does the captain list a fifth chief. He may have been a leading warrior who spoke at the council, as indicated by the term "pertizon" (partisan). The Yankton term may be mdotáhuŋka, "war leader." (back)
19. Ordway means to write Bois Brulé, the name for a group of Sioux, or Dakota, Indians; these were actually Yankton Sioux. (back)
20. Probably the great blue heron, Ardea herodias. (back)
21. The captains called the area Calumet Bluff; see Clark's entry of August 28. (back)
22. The grizzly bear, Ursus horribilis, not encountered until October 20. (back)
25. A passable translation of Bois Brulé; however, these people were in fact Yankton Sioux. (back)