September 1, 1804
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

September 1, 1804


September 1st Satturday 1804    Mr. Durion left his Kettle which we gave him, which we Sent to him and Set out under a gentle Breeze from the South    (raind half the last night,) proceded on—    pass Calumet Bluff of a 〈redish〉 yellowish read & a brownish white Hard clay, [1] this Bluff is about 170 or 180 foot high here    the high lands aproach the river on each Side with a jentle assent, opsd. the Bluff a large Island Covered with timber is Situated Close to the L. S.    we passed the Island opposit which the high land approach the river on both Side [2] (river ros 3 Inchs last night) passed a large Island Covered with wood on the L. S.    Some rain, cloudy all day—    the river wide & Hils close on each Side, Came to before night to go & See a Beaver house which is 1½ Miles to the L. S. of the riv    Cap Lewis & my self with two men went to See this house which was represented as high & situated in a Small pond.    we could not find the Pon.    Drewyer Killed a Buck Elk, it is not necessary to mention fish as we catch them at any place on the river, Camped at the lower point of Bonhomme Island[3]

Course Distance & reffurence Septr. 1st 1804
N 88° W.   4 Mile to a high point of the Bluff on the S. S. haveing passed
an Island on the (1) L. S. & Several Sand bars
S. 75 W.   2 to the low point of a large Island on the S. S.    passd. a pt. on
the L. S. and a Sand bar,
S 68 W   4 me. to a pt. on the L. S. haveing passed the upr pt. of the Isd.
on the S S and some high banks 24 fee[t] abov the water, with
bows & clare eviden[ce] of the land being made    als[o] a tree,
a Sand bar above Isd.
S 80 W   5 m. to a tree on an Isld call Bonom [Bonhomme] on the S. S.
haveing passed 1 pt. on the S. S.    a Deep bend & a San &
willow Bar on the L. S.    water rose 3 Inches last night

Mr. Dourion left his Kettle & Sent back for it &c. We Set out under a jentle Breeze from the S. (It rained half the last night) proceeded on pass the Bluffs Compsd. of a yellowish red, & brownish [WC?: &] White Clay which is a hard as Chalk [WC?: and much resemblig it] [4]    this Bluff is 170 or 180 feet high, here the High lands approach near the river on each Side, that on the S. S. not So high as that on the L. S.    opposit the Bluffs is Situated a large Island Covered with timber close under the L. S.    above the Isd the high land approach & form a (Bluff) Clift to the river on the S. S. this (Bluff) Clift is Called White Bear Clift [5] one of those animals haveing been killed in a whole in it

1st of September Satturday 1804 [6]

Some hard wind and rain, Cloudy all day, the river wide & hills on each Side near the river, passd. a large (1) Island which appeared to be composed of Sand, Covered with Cotton wood [7]    close under the S. S. we landed at the Lower point of a large Island on the S. S. Called bon homme or Good man , here Capt Lewis & my Self went out a Short distance on the L. S. to See a Beave house, which was Said to be of Great hite & Situated in a Pond    we could not find the house and returned after night    Drewyer killed an Elk, & a Beaver.    numbers of Cat fish cought, [8] those fish is so plenty that we catch them at any time and place in the river

Course Dists. & refers. 1st Septr.
N. 88 W.   4 mes. to a high point of on the S. S. haveing pass an Isd. (1) on
the L. S. & Several Sand bars
S. 75° W.   2 ms. to the lower pt. of a large Island on S. S.    passed a pt. on
the L. S. and a Sand bar.
S. 68° W.   4 mes to a pt. on L. S.    passd. the upper pt. of the Isld. S S. and
some land with bows and evident marks of being made 24
abov water.
S. 80° W.   5 mes. to a tree at the lower pt. of Bon homme Island on S S.
haveing psd. a pt. on the S. S.    a Deep bend of Sand and Wil-
lows on L S.

Saturday 1st September 1804, we Set off eairly    the frenchman called from the other Shore that they had forgot their tin kittle last evening.    the pearogue crossed    Brought him to the Boat for his kittle    we found it & gave it to him, & 2 fish with it, we proceeded on under an unsteady Breeze from S. W.    passed a chalk Bluff on N. S. where we found pleanty of fine plumbs, little above is a white clift called the den of the White Bear, we See large holes in the clift which appeared to go Deep into the clift; this clift is about 70 feet high    on the top is ragged round knobs & praries    all praries on Boath Sides of the river, Some Timber in the vallies, Cottonwood Elm oak &.C. & on the Islands which is covered with Small Cottonwood Timber &.C. & on the Islands which is covered with Small cottonwood Timber &.C;—    G. Drewyer went out hunting on N. S.    he returned in a Short time    had killed a fine Buck Elk; it was all put on board the pearague, we then proceeded on past Bottom praries to the lower point of a large & well Timbered Island where we Camped on N. S. & jurked our Elk, Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark went across the river where they was Informed that their was a Deep pond where their is a large Beaver house & about 3 hundred Beaver or more, as they amagine in the pond. The Captains had a curiousity to See the pond & Beaver house; or Cabbin; they returned in the evening, but did not See the pond nor did not Go to it for we had passed it some distance, N.B. we passed in the course of this day a large Island between the two Bluffs covered with timber.    above the White Bear clift we passed two Islands in Sight of each other the last of which is verry large, from the Calumet Bluffs covered with young Timber also, the high lands approach the river & in Some places touch on each Side of the Missouri.—


Saturday 1st Sept. 1804.    We renewed our voyage early; passed high bluffs on the south side, and high prairie land on the north; on this side, the hills come close to the river; and are so near on both sides, as not to be more than two miles from each other. During last night we had hard wind and some rain, which continues to fall occasionally during the day.— About 1 o'clock we passed a rich prairie on the south side, and encamped on the north side, at the lower end of an island.


Septm. 1 [9]    the morning was rainy    got under way at the Calmit bluff    at that place Captn. Lewis & Clark Held a treaty with the tribe of the Debough-bruley or the Burning wood

Saturday September 1st    This morning being rainey, we left Council Bluff, [10] where we had held a treaty, and proceeded rowing till the evening when we encamped on the bank of the River on the North side.—

1. Niobrara Chalk somewhat weathered and stained with iron oxides. (back)
2. The island is "I au Sigo" on Evans's map 1 (Atlas map 7), "Sego Island" on Atlas map 18, and "ile aux beufs" in Nicollet (MMR), 401. By the century's end it had evidently joined the Nebraska shore. The area where the bluffs narrow is at White Bear Cliffs (see n. 5, below). MRC map 30. (back)
3. Bon Homme Island was still on maps in the 1890s, between Bon Homme County, South Dakota, and Knox County, Nebraska. It is now inundated by Lewis and Clark Lake. Atlas map 18; MRC map 31. A map on this sheet of the Field Notes (document 51) shows Bon Homme Island (fig. 1). (back)
4. Perhaps it was Clark who has crossed through this passage and made his emendations in red. (back)
5. The name has remained on the map in Bon Homme County. It is also known as Gavins Point, though Gavins Point Dam is some three miles below. The "white bear" is the grizzly, Ursus horribilis, here referred to for the first time in the journals, but not encounered until October 20. Mattison (GP), 56–57; Coues (HLC), 1:102–3 n. 1; Atlas map 18; MRC map 30. (back)
6. For some reason Clark has two dated entries for September 1 in Codex B, one immediately following the other but on separate pages. Conceivably one or the other was inserted later on a space left blank. (back)
7. The men may now be encountering a new variety of cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. ssp. monilifera (Ait.) Eckenwaider, plains cottonwood. Barkley, 101. (back)
8. The catfish is probably Ictalurus punctatus, channel catfish, or perhaps I. furtatus, blue catfish. Lee et al., 446, 439. (back)
9. This entry is apparently in the hand of No. 2. (back)
10. Calumet Bluff, which the copyist has evidently confused with the Council Bluff where the party met with the Otos and Missouris; see July 30. (back)