October 30, 1805
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Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

October 30, 1805


A Cloudy morning. Some little rain all night, after eating a Slight brackfast of venison we Set out.

The rocks project into the river in maney places and have the appearance of haveing fallen from the highe hills    those projected rocks is common & Small Bays below & nitches in the rocks    passed 4 Cascades or Small Streams falling from the mountains on Lard. [1]

S. 70° W. 3 miles to a point of rocks on the Stard. Side, passed a number
of Stumps at Some distance in the Water,

This part of the river resembles a pond partly dreaned leaving many Stumps bare both in & out of the water, current about 1 mil pr. Hour

S. 74° W 2 miles to a point of a timbered bottom on Stard. Side    halted
to Dine, killed a Deer & 3 ducks & a Squirel of the Mountains [2]
we can plainly hear the roreing of the grand Shutes below, saw
the large Buzard white head and part of the wings white
West 4 miles to the mouth of a river on th Stard. Side of about 60
yards wide    passed Std. point & many large rocks promis-
cuissly in the river both above and below this river a large
Sand bar on the Lard Side

The bottom above the river is about ¾ of a mile wide and rich, Some deer & bear Sign—    rained moderately all day we are wet and cold. Saw Several Specis of wood which I never Saw before, Some resembling Beech & others Poplar.—    Day dark and disagreeable.

S. 45° W.   2 miles to a large rock in the river, passed Several rocks and a
large Sand bar on the Lard. Sid    verry large rock near the
Stard. Side    High Mounts. on each Side, ruged and covd.
with a variety of timber Such as Pine Spruce Seder Cotton
wood Oake
S. 30 W.   4 miles to a Island, at the Commencement of the grand Shute
and the Stard. Side where we Campd.    passed maney large
rocks in the river [neither?] in th, a large Creek on the Std.
Side at 2 miles, with an Island in the mouth.    passed 3 Islands
on the Stard. one on the Lard above 2 Small Islands opsd. to
us on which there growes 6 large Pine, 4 rock Islands which
almost Chokes up the river—    a deep bay to th Stard. on
which the Indians live in 8 large worm Houses    2 ponds back
of this on the Stard 1 above the Islands, one on the Lard. side.
Several Small rocks—in dift. pts.

I with 2 men proceeded down the river 2 miles on an old Indian parth to view the rapids, which I found impassable for our canoes without a portage, the roade bad    at 1 mile I saw a Town of Houses laterly abandoned [3] on an elevated Situation opsd. a 2d Shute, returned at dark. Capt. Lewis and 5 men went to the Town found them kind [4]    they gave Beries & nuts, but he cd. get nothin from them in the way of Information, the greater part of those people out collecting roots below, rained all the evining    Those people have one gun & maney articles which they have purchased of the white people their food is principally fish


A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out    passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side, a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with, the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1½ mile pr. hour and about ¾ of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [5] and Dined    J. Shields Killed a Buck & Labiech 3 Ducks, here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large 〈round〉 Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, this day we Saw Some fiew of the large Buzzard [6]    Capt. Lewis Shot at one, those Buzzards are much larger than any other of ther Spece or the largest Eagle white under part of their wings &c. The bottoms above the mouth of this little river 〈which we Call〉 is rich covered with grass & firn & is about ¾ of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent.    we call this little river 〈fr Ash〉 New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash [7] 〈that wood〉 which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech [8] in bark 〈& groth〉 but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller.    passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island, [9] passed on the right of 3 Islands 〈on〉 near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute, [10] and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c. [11] I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile on an ellevated Situation of    this village contained verry large houses built in a different form from any I had Seen, and laterly abandoned, and the most of the boads put into a pond of water near the village, as I conceived to drown the flees, which was emencely noumerous about the houses—. I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2½ miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark    Capt Lewis and 5 men had just returned from the village, Cap L. informed me that he found the nativs kind, they gave him berries, nuts & fish to eate; but he could get nothing from them in the way of information. The greater part of the inhabitants of this village being absent down the river Some distance Colecting roots    Capt. L. Saw one gun and Several articles which must have been precured from the white people.    a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire.    we made fifteen miles to daye.


Wednesday 30th Oct. 1805.    a cloudy morning.    we bought 3 dogs of the Indians and Set out and proceeded on    the River wide and Strait    the current gentle.    the timber thick on each Side. Saw a number of beautiful Springs which came in on each Side.    the narrow bottoms along the Shores are covred with cotten timber and under brush.    the after part of the day rainy and foggy.    one of the hunters killed a Deer    we Saw a great number of Swan [12] and geese along the Shores. Some turkey bazzards [13] which had white under their wings. Capt. Clark killed a black loon. [14]    towards evening we heared a great roaring a Short distance a head which we expect is another falls.    we passed the mouth of a River [15] which came in on the Stard. Side about 40 yards wide    we passed a large Indian village on the Stard. Side a Short distance above the big Shoote.    we Camped [16] close above the Shoote.    a number of the Savages came to our Camp and Signed to us that they were Surprized to See us    they thought we had rained down out of the clouds. Several of the party went to the village and was treated verry friendly.    we had come about 15 miles this day.—


Wednesday 30th.    The morning was cloudy; the river and country we found much the same as yesterday. At noon we stopped to dine and one of the men [17] went out and killed a large buck. A number of fine springs come down the hills on the South side; and we passed a small river on the north. [18] In the evening we came to the head of falls, where there is a large Indian village. [19] On our way down we saw a great many swans, geese and ducks; and a number of sea otter. There are some small bottoms along the river, with cotton wood [20] on them, and on the Banks of the river some white oak, ash and hazlenut. [21] At a distance there are ponds which abound with geese and ducks. It rained hard all day, and we came only 15 miles.


Wednesday 30th Oct. 1805.    cloudy.    we bought 3 dogs of the Indians, and Set out about 7 oClock and proceeded on.    the river verry Strait and wide.    the Timber thick on each Side.    Saw a nomber of beautiful Springs running out of the clifts on the Lard. Side    high hills covred with pine and Spruce.    Some bottoms along the Shores covred with cotton timber, and under brush &c.    the after part of the day rainy and foggey.    one of the hunters killed a Deer.    we Saw a great nomber of Swan and geese, turkey buzzards which had white on their wings &c.    Capt. Clark killed a black loon.    in the evening we arived at another verry bad rapid or falls, above which the River is gentle and wide a nomber of Islands and high rocks &c    one half mile above the falls is a village [22] of about 10 well looking cabbins covred with bark, Sunk in the ground like those at the narrows above, only these are much larger and verry comfortable, and warm.    these Savages were Surprized to See us    they Signed to us that they thought that we had rained down out of the clouds.    a nomber of the party went in the village, and was treated in a friendly manner    gave fish and the best they had to eat &c.    we went 15 miles and Camped between the village and falls.    continued raining.    high mountains on each Side of the falls &c.    we passed the mouth of a River    came in on the S. Side 50 yds wide. [23]

Wednesday October 30th    We had a cool Cloudy morning.    The Natives came early to our Camp and our officers purchased from them 3 more fat dogs.    We set out on our Voyage again, down the Columbia River.    We found the River at a short distance from where we started this morning to be very strait & wide and Trees of different kinds very thick on the Shores, on both sides of the River, and beautiful Springs running from under Clifts of Rocks, along the Shores.    We also saw on the South side of the River, a small distance back from it, pine & Spruce Timber; which grew on high hills, and in the bottoms on both shores were Covered with Cotton Wood trees & under brush.—    The latter part of this day we had some Rain & it became foggy.    One of our hunters that had went out this morning, met us with a deer, which he had killed.    We saw a great quantity of Geese & Ducks in the River, & Turkey buzzards which differed in Colour to those we had before seen, having white feathers on their wings.    Captain Clark killed along the Shore a black Raccoon.    In the Evening we arrived at a very bad Rapid or falls, above which, the River run very gentle & was wide, having a number of Islands & high Rocks in it.—    We saw about half a Mile above those falls, an Indian Village.—

This Village contained about 10 well looking Cabbins, (which were covered with bark) sunk in the ground, as those we had seen at the falls, which I have already described & were much more comfortable & larger sized.    The Indians belonging to this Village made signs to us as we passed along by their village, that they thought & supposed that we had rained down from the Clouds, and seemed very much surprized at seeing us, they not beleiving that we could possibly descended the River at that season of the Year.    A number of our party went to this Indian Village, & the Indians treated them in a very friendly manner, & gave them the best they had to eat.    On each side of these falls, lays very high mountains, and about 2 Miles above them, we passed the mouth of a River which lay on the South side of this River, which was about 30 Yards wide & by us called the River La Bache. [24]    We came about 15 Miles this day, & encamped between the Indian Village & the falls.    The Rain continued the greater part of this night.—

1. Shown nameless on Atlas map 78. There are a number of creeks near Viento, Hood River County, Oregon in the right location, including Viento, Starvation, Cabin, Warren, Lindsey, and Summit creeks. (back)
2. Probably the western gray squirrel. By mountains Clark does not mean the Rocky Mountains, but rather the hills along the Columbia River. See Lewis's entry of February 25, 1806. (back)
3. This is the area below the Cascades in Skamania County, Washington. Clark's texts and maps of the terrain and of Indian settlements in this region cannot be matched with precision to twentieth-century archaeological work. This site appears on figures as "old village" and "a village of large wood houses" and is shown on Atlas maps 78 and 79 as "an old village of very large houses." It is the "old village . . . on an ellevated Situation" in the codex entry. Investigators have called it wała'la and Wahlala ("their lake"). Spier & Sapir, 167; Beckham, 17–19, 27. It appears to have sat very near the Bridge of the Gods. (back)
4. Identified on Atlas map 79 as the Yehuh, a Chinookan-language group of whom little is known. The town is variously noted as having eight houses. Investigators have reported it as the Y-eh-huh village. Minor, Toepel, & Beckham, 41–51; Beckham, 17–19, 24–26. It was located downstream from Stevenson and near the Bridge of the Gods. (back)
5. "New Timbered River" in this entry, but "Crusats River" after Pierre Cruzatte of the party on Atlas map 78 and in the combined course table at November 1. An earlier name has been scratched out on the map. It is the present Wind River, in Skamania County. (back)
6. The California condor, Gymnogyps californianus [AOU, 324], now nearly extinct. The last wild condor was captured for care in southern California in April 1987. Correctly described by Lewis and Clark as the largest North American bird, it was already known to science, but they were the first to note its presence on the Columbia. See below, February 16, 1806, for a lengthy description, and weather remarks for October 28 and 29, 1805. Burroughs, 201–3; Cutright (LCPN), 241. (back)
7. Oregon ash, Fraxinus latifolia Benth. This large tree is the only native species of ash in the Pacific Northwest. It is interesting that the Oregon ash and the red, or Oregon, alder, Alnus rubra Bong., are mentioned together, since the flora of the Columbia gorge here is an extension of the flora of the western Cascade lowlands, which the explorers were encountering for the first time. The red alder and Oregon ash reach their easternmost distributional limits in southern Skamania and western Klickitat counties. Other species such as Sitka spruce, Oregon white oak, hazelnut, and western redcedar are all part of this lowland flora which extends eastward up the Columbia gorge. Hitchcock et al., 4:57; Little (CIH), 127-W. (back)
8. The red alder, then new to science. The comparison of this tree with the American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., which is commonly found in the eastern United States is appropriate. The bark of the red alder is thin, gray, and smooth, just like the beech and the growth form is somewhat similar. The leaves of the red alder are similar in terms of the toothed margin and shape, but smaller than the beech, which confirms the red alder identification. Little (CIH), 104-W, 125-E; Hitchcock et al., 2:74; Cutright (LCPN), 261 n. 19, 274. (back)
9. Nameless on Atlas map 79; present Rock Creek, below Stevenson in Skamania County. (back)
10. Nearly opposite present Cascade Locks, Hood River County, where they camped until November 1, 1805, on an island in Skamania County. They were just above the Cadcades of the Columbia (the "Great Shute"), now inundated by Bonneville Dam. Atlas maps 78, 79. (back)
11. The spruce is Sitka spruce, Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., at its eastern distributional limit along the Columbia River. Little (CIH), 42-W. The cottonwood is black cottonwood, the pine is ponderosa pine, and the oak is Oregon white oak. (back)
12. Probably Lewis and Clark's whistling swan, now the tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus. (back)
13. California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. (back)
14. Mentioned this day by Whitehouse but not mentioned by Clark, it may be either the red-throated loon, Gavia stellata, or the Pacific loon, G. arctica pacifica, of the coastal area. It might also have been the widely dispersed common loon, G. immer. (back)
15. "Crusat River" to the party, named for member Pierre Cruzatte, now Wind River, Skamania County, Washington. (back)
16. Until November 1 they camped here, just above the Cascades of the Columbia (Ordway's "Shoote"), on an island in Skamania County, nearly opposite Cascade Locks, Hood River County, Oregon. The Indians are Yehuhs. (back)
17. Shields. (back)
18. The captains named it Cruzatte's River, after Pierre Cruzatte of the party; it is now Wind River, Skamania County, Washington. (back)
19. They camped here, just above the Cascades of the Columbia River, on an island in Skamania County, nearly opposite Cascade Locks, Hood River County, Oregon. The nearby Indians were Yehuhs, a Chinookan-language people of whom little is known. (back)
20. Probably black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa T. & G. (back)
21. Oregon ash, Fraxinus latifolia Benth., and hazelnut, Corylus cornuta Marsh. var. californica (DC.) Sharp. (back)
22. Yehuhs, a Chinookan-language people of whom little is known. (back)
23. Beginning with "high mountains," these last several sentences are crowded in between entries. (back)
24. They had passed Hood (Labiche) River the previous day. (back)