July 4, 1806
92.20% Complete
Aug 30, 1803 Sep 30, 1806

July 4, 1806


An Indian arrived alone from the West side of the mountains. [1]    〈it〉 he had pursued and overtook us here.    sent out the hunters early to kill some meat to give the indians as they would not go with us further and I was unwilling after they service they had rendered to send them away without a good store of provision.    they are going down Clark's River in surch of the Shalees their 〈relations〉 friends, and from thence intend returning by this rout home again, they fleesed their meat informed us that they should dry it and leave it for their homeward journey.—    Set out at 12.    had killed no deer.

N. 75 E   5 M.    passed a large creek 15 yds at four miles [2] and en-
tered the mountain    passed this creek at one mile on which
we were encamped.    open plain    〈narrow〉 wide bottom to
the river
S. 75 E.   3 M. along the north side of the river    bottom widens a prai-
rie    〈passed a small rapids〉
N 45 E   1 m. passing a small branch at the extremity of this cors [3]
S. 45 E   1 M. to the forks of the east branch of Clark's River [4]    a hand-
som wide plain below on the S. side
S East   8 M. up the buffaloe road river or Co-kâh-lah-,'ishkit river [5]
through a timbered country, mountains high rocky and but
little bottoms.    land poor—    encamped [6] in a handsom high
timbered bottom near the river where there was fine grass
killed grown squirrel of speceis different from any I had seen
Ms. 18  

I arrose early this morning and sent out Drewyer and the Fieldses to hunt.    at 6. A. M. a man of the Pallote pellows [NB?: Pelloat pallahs] [7] arrived from the West side of the Rocky mountains; he had pursued us a few days after our departure and overtook us at this place; he proved to be the same young man who had first attempted to pass the rocky mountains early in June last when we lay on the Kooskooske and was obliged to relinquish the enterprize in consequence of the debth and softness of the snow. I gave a shirt a handkercheif and a small quantity of ammunition to the indians.    at half after eleven the hunters returned from the chase unsuccessfull. I now ordered the horses saddled smoked a pipe with these friendly people and at noon bid them adieu.    they had cut the meat which I gave them last evening thin and exposed it in the sun to dry informing me that they should leave it in this neighbourhood untill they returned as a store for their homeward journey.    it is worthy of remark that these people were about to return by the same pass by which they had conducted us through the difficult part of the Rocky Mountains, altho they were about to decend Clark's river several days journey in surch of the Shale's their relations, [8] a circumstance which to my mind furnishes sufficient evidence that there is not so near or so good a rout to the plains of Columbia by land along that river as that which we came.    the several war routs of the Minetarees which fall into this vally of Clark's river concenter at traveller's rest beyond which point they have never yet dared to venture in pursuit of the nations beyond the mountains.    all the nations also on the west side of the mountain with whom we are acquainted inhabiting the waters of Lewis's river & who visit the plains of the Missouri pass by this rout.    these affectionate people our guides betrayed every emmotion of unfeigned regret at seperating from us; they said that they were confidint that the Pahkees, [9] (the appellation they give the Minnetares) would cut us off.    the first 5 miles of our rout was through a part of the extensive plain in which we were encamped, we then entered the mountains with the East fork of Clark's river through a narrow confined pass on it's N. side continuing up that river five ms. further to the entrance of the Cokahlahishkit R which falls in on the N. E. side, is 60 yds. wide deep and rapid.    the banks bold not very high but never overflow.    the East fork below its junction with this stream is 100 yds. wide and above it about 90.    the water of boath are terbid but the East branch much the most so; their beds are composed of sand and gravel; the East fork possesses a large portion of the former.    neither of those streams are navigable in consequence of the rapids and shoals which obstruct their currents.    thus far a plain or untimbered country bordered the river which near the junction of these streams spread into a handsome level plain of no great extent; the hills were covered with long leafed pine and fir. I now continued my rout up the N. side of the Cokahlahishkit river through a timbered country for 8 miles and encamped in a handsom bottom on the river where there was an abundance of excelence grass for our horses.    the evening was fine, air pleasent and no musquetoes.    a few miles before we encamped I killed a squirrel of the speceis common to the Rocky Mountains and a ground squirrel of a speceis which I had never before seen, [10] I preserved the skins of both of these animals.

Courses and distances July 4th 1806.
S. 75° E.   3 M. a long the N. side of the river, at 2 Ms. the bottom widens
into a handsome prarie.    river 110 yds. wide.
N. 45 E.   1 M. through a high plain, passed a small branch at the ex-
tremity of this course.
S. 45 E.   1 M. through a low leavel prarie to the entrance of the Cokahlah-
ishkit river
falling in on the N. side 60 yds. wide deep and
rapid not navigable in consequence of the obstruction of
rocks rapids &c.
East   8 M. up the north side of the Cokahlah-ishkit R. through a tim-
bered country, mountains high and rocky.    river bottoms
narrow and land poor.    encamped at the extremity of this
course on the bank of the river in a handsom timbered
bottom. [11]
ms. 13  

I order three hunters to Set out early this morning to hunt & kill Some meat and by 7 A. M. we Collected our horses took braekfast and Set out    proceeded on up the Vally on the West Side of Clarks river crossing three large deep and rapid Creeks, and two of a Smaller Size to a Small branch in the Spurs of the mountain and dined. [12]    the last Creek or river which we pass'd was So deep and the water So rapid that Several of the horses were Sweped down Some distance and the Water run over Several others which wet Several articles.    after Crossing this little river, I observed in the road the tracks of two men whome I prosume is of the Shoshone nation.    our hunters joined us with 2 deer in tolerable order. on the Side of the Hill near the place we dined Saw a gange of Ibex or big horn Animals I Shot at them running and missed. This being the day of the decleration of Independence of the United States and a Day commonly Scelebrated by my Country I had every disposition to Selebrate this day and therefore halted early and partook of a Sumptious Dinner of a fat Saddle of Venison and Mush of Cows (roots)    after Dinner we proceeded on about one mile to a very large Creek [13] which we assended Some distance to find a foard to cross    in crossing this creek Several articles got wet, the water was So Strong, alto' the debth was not much above the horses belly, the water passed over the backs and loads of the horses.    those Creeks are emensely rapid has great decnt [NB: descent]    the bottoms of the Creek as well as the low lands on each Side is thickly covered with large Stone. [14] after passing this Creek I inclined to the left and fell into the road on which we had passed down last fall near the place we had dined on the 7th of Sept. and continued on the road passing up on the W. Side of Clarks river 13 miles to the West fork of Sd. river and Encamped on an arm of the same [15]    I Sent out 2 men to hunt, and 3 in Serch of a foard to pass the river.    at dark they all returned and reported that they had found a place that the river might be passed but with Some risque of the loads getting wet    I order them to get up their horses and accompany me to those places &c.    our hunters killed 4 deer to day.    we made 30 ms. to day on a course nearly South    Vally from 8 to 10 mes. wide.    contains a good portion of Pitch pine.    we passed three large deep rapid Creeks this after noon [16]


Friday 4th July 1806.    a fair morning.    2 of our hunters went on eairly a head.    we took an eairly breakfast, and proceed. on through a large plain & groves of pitch pine where the hunters had killed 2 deer    we took the meat and proceed on    crossed Several creeks one so large it Swam Some of our horses. [17]    about 12 we Saw a large flock of Mountn. Sheep or big horn animels.    they run so near us that Some of the men fired at them. Shortly after we halted at a branch to dine.    dined and proceeded on without finding the road.    as we cannot ford the river yet.    towards evening one of the hunters killed a deer. Soon after we Camped [18] near the forks of the creek.    one of the hunters killed a fat buck this evening.


Friday 4th.    We had a beautiful morning and waited here for some time, in order to have a morning hunt, as our guides intend to return, [19] and we wish to give them a plentiful supply of provisions to carry them back over the mountains. While our hunters [20] went out a young Indian came to our camp, who had crossed the mountains after us. At 10 o'clock our hunters came in, but had not killed any thing. We were, however, able to furnish them with two deer and a half, from those that were killed yesterday. We then gave them some presents, and took a friendly leave of them: and it is but justice to say, that the whole nation to which they belong, are the most friendly, honest and ingenuous people that we have seen in the course of our voyage and travels. After taking our farewell of these good hearted, hospitable and obliging sons of the west, we proceeded on up Isquet-co-qual-la through a handsome prairie of about 10 miles, after which the hills come close on the river, on both sides, and we had a rough road to pass. [21] Having made 18 miles we encamped [22] for the night; where the country is very mountainous on both sides of the river, which runs nearly east and west, and is a deep rapid stream about 80 yards wide.

1. A "Pallote pellow," according to the Codex L entry, next. They may be Palouse Indians, or more likely Nez Perces. The complicated linguistic matter is discussed at June 8, 1806. (back)
2. Rattlesnake Creek, Missoula County, Montana; shown as "15 yds. wide" on fig. 4. (back)
3. Marshall Creek, in Missoula County. They were passing through the northern part of present Missoula, on the north side of the Clark Fork. The last part of the route was along what later became Mullan Road and eventually Broadway Street through Missoula. (back)
4. The junction of Blackfoot River and the Clark Fork, in Missoula County, east of Missoula. (back)
5. Lewis went northeasterly up Blackfoot River. (back)
6. In Missoula County, by Lewis's estimate some eight miles up the Blackfoot River from its junction with the Clark Fork, on the north side (see fig. 4). (back)
7. This appears to be Biddle's writing, but in dark rather than his customary red ink. (back)
8. The Salish ("Shale's"), or Flatheads, were not linguistically or culturally related to the Nez Perce. However, they were close allies, camped together for extended periods, and undoubtedly intermarried. (back)
9. The Shoshone term probably refers to the tribe's enemies, including Blackfeet, Arapahoes, Atsinas, and Assinniboines. Linguistic determinations are discussed at August 13, 1805. (back)
10. Probably Richardson's red squirrel; see February 24 and 25, 1806. The other squirrel can not be identified. (back)
11. At this point in Codex L (p. 81) is the phrase "a Suplement to Come in here enclosed," apparently in Clark's hand. Following are several blank pages (82–98, with two pages unnumbered), into which Lewis apparently intended to fill the events of July 5–14, 1806, perhaps from the notes in Codex La. (back)
12. Clark is still moving south on the west side of the Bitterroot River in Ravalli County, Montana. Among the streams crossed would be Blodgett, Canyon, Sawtooth, Roaring Lion, and Lost Horse creeks, none of them named on Atlas map 68. See also Atlas map 103. (back)
13. Perhaps Rock Creek, in Ravalli County. (back)
14. During the Pleistocene, numerous small glaciers advanced eastward into the Bitterroot Valley from the Bitterroot Mountains and left behind extensive deposits of boulder till in the stream valleys they occupied. Subsequent erosion removed much of the finer-grained material, leaving the boulders. The streams also carried large boulders downstream beyond the glaciers during flood flows. (back)
15. Clark camped on the north side of the West Fork Bitterroot River, near its junction with the Bitterroot in Ravalli County. The site is not marked on Atlas map 68, but it on Atlas map 103; it is some five miles northwest of the camp of September 6, 1805. (back)
16. Probably including Rock, Tin Cup, and Chaffin creeks, in Ravalli County, none of them named on Atlas maps 68 or 103. (back)
17. The party continued south on the west side of the Bitterroot River in Ravalli County, Montana. (back)
18. On the north side of West Fork Bitterroot River, near its junction with the Bitterroot in Ravalli County. (back)
19. Their Nez Perce guides were going to visit the Flatheads and then return home. (back)
20. Drouillard and the Field brothers, as Lewis says. (back)
21. They went up Clark Fork River in Missoula County, Montana, through the northern part of present Missoula, to where the Blackfoot River enters the Clark Fork, then up Blackfoot River going northeasterly. (back)
22. In Missoula County, on the north side of Blackfoot River, some eight miles up from the Clark Fork. (back)